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(b Paris, 1724; d Paris, April 13, 1806).

French painter, writer and administrator . A pupil of Jean-Baptiste Pierre, he was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale in Paris in 1750 and received (reçu) as a painter of flowers in 1752 on presentation of a Portrait of the King in a Medallion Surrounded by a Garland of Flowers and Attributes of the Arts (untraced). He was essentially a flower and animal painter; as a successor to Jean-Baptiste Oudry he played a key part in the continuation of a precise and polished type of still-life painting. Yet Bachelier also had pretensions towards becoming a history painter, a status he achieved officially in 1763 when he was admitted to the category of history painters at the Académie on the strength of his Death of Abel (Auxerre, Mus. A. & Hist.), for which he substituted a Roman Charity (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.) in 1764.

Bachelier exhibited regularly at the Salon from ...

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Born 1910, in London; died 1996, in Firle (East Sussex).

Painter, potter, writer, art historian.

Bloomsbury Group.

Quentin Bell was the son of the painter Vanessa Bell and the art critic Clive Bell. An author, biographer and art historian, he is also well known as an artist. Bell studied at Peterborough Lodge in Swiss Cottage, London, and Leighton Park School in Reading before dropping out at age seventeen to pursue his career as a painter. In ...

Article

Swiss, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in Germany.

Born 31 December 1849, in St Gall; died 1921, in Planegg.

Architect, painter, decorative designer, theorist. Designs (furniture/fabrics/metal objects/ceramics).

Jugendstil.

From 1868 to 1871 Hans Eduard von Berlepsch-Valendas was a student of architecture with Gottfried Sempers in Zurich. After graduating he abandoned architecture while he was living in Frankfurt, to go and train as a painter in Munich (...

Article

(b Lyon, 1798; d Paris, June 16, 1838).

French painter, designer and interior decorator. Throughout his career he was an advocate of the importance of art and design for industry and manufacture. In 1830 he was appointed adviser to the Sèvres Porcelain Factory by the director Alexandre Brongniart (1770–1847). There Chenavard made cartoons for stained-glass windows, a stoneware ‘Vase de la Renaissance’ shown at the 1833 Sèvres exhibition and designs for the Duc d’Orléans (future King Louis-Philippe), such as a silver-gilt ewer made by M. Durant and shown at the 1834 Paris Exposition Universelle. Chenavard exhibited designs at the Paris Salons of 1827, 1831, 1833 and 1834, among them his Gothic-style designs, in collaboration with Achille Mascret, for the decoration of the chapel at the château of Eu, and his sketches for the restoration of the Théâtre Français and Opéra Comique in Paris. Material by Chenavard is preserved in the Musée National de Céramique at Sèvres and the ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

German centre of ceramics production. In 1907 the German art historian Otto von Falke argued that a group of distinctive and highly decorated 15th-century stoneware vessels with stamped ornament (a square containing four dots) had been made in a workshop in Dreihausen (near Marburg, in Hesse). The place of origin has been the subject of much scholarly debate, but it now seems likely that they were made at a workshop in the region of Zittau (Saxony)....

Article

Rosamond Allwood

(b Glasgow, July 4, 1834; d Mulhouse, Alsace, Nov 24, 1904).

Scottish designer, Botanist and writer. He trained at the Government School of Design, Somerset House, London, between 1847 and 1854, during which time he was strongly influenced by the design reform efforts of Henry Cole, Richard Redgrave and Owen Jones. In 1854 he began to lecture at the school on botany and in 1856 supplied a plate illustrating the ‘geometrical arrangement of flowers’ for Jones’s Grammar of Ornament. In 1857 he presented a series of lectures at the Royal Institution entitled ‘On the Relationship of Science to Ornamental Art’, which he followed up in a series of 11 articles in the Art Journal (1857–8) on the similar subject of ‘Botany as Adapted to the Arts and Art-Manufacture’. His first three books were on botanical subjects, and in 1860 he was awarded a doctorate by the University of Jena for his research in this area.

Following the International Exhibition of ...

Article

(b Paris, Dec 1, 1716; d Paris, Jan 24, 1791).

French sculptor, designer and writer. He was one of the foremost French sculptors of the mid-18th century and is best known for his small-scale marble sculptures on gallant and allegorical themes, as well as for his widely reproduced models for the porcelain factory at Sèvres. From 1766 to 1778, however, he lived in Russia, and his most interesting work is the monumental bronze equestrian statue of Peter the Great that he designed for St Petersburg. Falconet was an autodidact of fiercely independent and moralistic spirit; he wrote a number of essays on the theory of art and left notable correspondences with the philosopher Denis Diderot and with Catherine the Great of Russia. He was made a professor at the Académie Royale in 1761. His son Pierre-Etienne Falconet (1741–91) was a minor draughtsman and engraver, whose most notable achievement was the illustrating of his father’s article on sculpture for the ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1909, in Baltimore; died 1993.

Painter, draughtsman, print artist, illustrator, art historian, writer. Figures, portraits, genre scenes, scenes with figures, landscapes. Comic strips.

Elton Clay Fax studied at Clafin University, Orangeburg, South Carolina, and Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York. He was taught by Augusta Savage....

Article

Margaret Medley

(b July 26, 1872; d Horsham, Sussex, June 5, 1941).

English art historian. In 1897 he joined the staff of the British Museum, London, to assist in the preparation of catalogues of English pottery and porcelain. This subject remained of interest even after his move to the study of Chinese ceramics in 1909, when he compiled a catalogue on this subject for an exhibition held in 1910 by the Burlington Fine Arts Club. His Chinese Pottery and Porcelain, a comprehensive history in which he made extensive use of original Chinese texts, remains an essential reference source. In 1921 he became Keeper of Oriental Antiquities at the British Museum, retiring in 1933. He was a founder-member of the Oriental Ceramic Society, the leading society for the study of Asian art in Britain, and he worked with other members of the society’s council in the organization of the International Exhibition of Chinese Art (London, RA, 1935–6), the first exhibition in Europe to show objects from the ...

Article

Kathy Niblett

(Howell)

(b Hong Kong, Jan 5, 1887; d St Ives, Cornwall, May 6, 1979).

English potter and writer. Until he was ten years old he lived in the Far East, which had a most powerful influence on his life and work. In 1903–4 he studied drawing with Henry Tonks at the Slade School of Art, London. He kept a death-bed promise to his father to train to work in the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank, but left after nine months and in 1908 he attended the London School of Art to learn etching with Frank Brangwyn. In 1909 he returned to Japan to teach etching and in 1911 was ‘seized with the desire’ to work in clay after attending a ‘raku yaki’ tea party, where he shared the instantaneous joy of Raku family pottery. He found a pottery teacher, Shigekichi Urano (1881–1923), who had become Kenzan VI c. 1900 (see Ogata family §(2)). After teaching him to pot, Kenzan built a kiln for Leach in ...

Article

Gerald Heres

(b Dresden, Sept 29, 1702; d Dresden, March 28, 1785).

German draughtsman and antiquarian. After an apprenticeship as a glazier and classes at the Dresden school of drawing, he served an apprenticeship at the Meissen porcelain factory, where he was recorded in 1726 as an artist. With the support of the Dresden architect Friedrich August Krubsacius, he obtained commissions from the court, and in 1735 he was appointed a drawing master at its Pagenakademie. Lippert began the study of antique gems and collected impressions of them from all over Europe. After the invention of a new substance for taking impressions, he edited his Dactyliotheca (1755–6) in three booklike boxes, with notes in Latin by well-known scholars; he later produced a selection with his own German text. His collection of impressions considerably furthered both the study of Classical antiquity during the Enlightenment and the classicist tendencies in art. It became a model for the collections of impressions of gems that remained popular in the 19th century....

Article

(b Castel Durante, 1523–4; d Castel Durante, 1579).

Italian writer and maiolica painter. He came from a patrician family of Bolognese descent and was a humanist by education and an amateur devotee of the arts. He was also active as a dilettante poet, land surveyor, civil and military engineer and draughtsman. Between 1556 and 1559 he wrote Li tre libri dell’arte del vasaio—the earliest European treatise on maiolica production—at the request of Cardinal François de Tournon (1489–1562), who may have intended the treatise to help improve the quality of faience being manufactured in his native France. In this three-part treatise, Piccolpasso explained and illustrated in lively detail the basic procedures required for maiolica production; these procedures have remained largely unchanged during the ensuing centuries. He described the composition of glazes, pigments and lustres, the location and preparation of the raw materials, the methods for constructing the tools—including the wheel and kiln—and for forming, trimming, drying, painting and firing the wares. He also included a selection of designs for plate decoration that were popular during the first half of the 16th century. His other major literary work was a topographical description of Umbria entitled ...

Article

Mark Allen Svede

(b nr Cēsis, April 28, 1896; d Tbilisi, Georgia, July 14, 1944).

Latvian painter, printmaker, ceramicist, interior designer, tage and film set designer and theorist. He was the foremost ideologue for modernism in Latvia and was one of its greatest innovators. His militant defence of avant-garde principles befitted his experience as a soldier and as one of the artists who, after World War I, was denied a studio by the city officials and staged an armed occupation of the former premises of the Riga Art School. At the end of the war he painted in an Expressionist manner: In Church (1917; Riga, priv. col., see Suta, 1975, p. 19), for example, is an exaltation of Gothic form and primitivist rendering. Unlike his peers Jāzeps Grosvalds and Jēkabs Kazaks, he was extremely interested in Cubism and Constructivism, the theories of which informed his paintings, drawings, prints and occasional architectural projects of the 1920s. At this time he and his wife, the painter ...

Article

Annie Scottez-De Wambrechies

(b Langres, Haute-Marne, March 16, 1804; d Paris, Dec 25, 1856).

French painter, ceramicist, writer and lithographer. He first studied in Paris under Ingres and François-Joseph Heim. In 1830 he toured Italy, spending time in Venice especially, and then went to Munich, where he learnt the technique of fresco painting from Peter Cornelius. After spending some time in Belgium, he returned to Paris and illustrated such Romantic pieces of literature as E. T. A. Hoffmann’s Contes fantastiques. At the Salon of 1831 he exhibited paintings based on his travels, including View of Venice (Nantes, Mus. B.-A.) and Souvenir of Germany. In 1833 he established his reputation as a history painter by showing at the Salon two works that were based on medieval sources: Giotto in Cimabue’s Studio (Bordeaux, Mus. B.-A.), bought by the State for the Musée du Luxembourg, and the Death of Foscari (Arras, Mus. B.-A.). At the Salon of 1835 he was awarded medals for portraits of Connétable, Comte de Sancerre...