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Barbara Schock-Werner and Jill Lever

Representation in graphic form of a building or part of a building, either as a stage in the planned construction of an actual edifice or as an imaginative act in its own right. The development of the form in Western art has reflected not only developments in architectural and graphic techniques but also broader developments in the status and role of the architect.

Barbara Schock-Werner

In the Middle Ages architectural drawings served to visualize a building design and to establish its dimensions; they depicted the whole or part of a building, individual details and the architectural ornament of church furnishings such as choir-stalls or sedilia. The earliest surviving medieval architectural drawing is the monastic plan made c. 820 of St Gall Abbey, which was probably produced as an ‘ideal’ rather than as a working plan (for further discussion and illustration see St Gall Abbey, §2). Romanesque and Early Gothic churches were normally built without preliminary drawings, but a few architectural drawings survive from the 13th century, among them the portfolio of ...

Article

Gouache  

Jonathan Stephenson

[bodycolour]

Commercially manufactured opaque watercolour paint popular with designers, illustrators and airbrush artists. The term also, and more correctly, refers to the use of opaque watercolours in a loosely defined area of technique and the materials and effects associated with such painting. Gouache, also called bodycolour, is simply water-based paint rendered opaque by the addition of white paint or pigment (e.g. Chinese white) or a white substance, such as chalk or even marble dust. It is an evolved form of Tempera paint, descended from distemper. The application of the term gouache is often imprecise, but it is most often associated with colours bound in glue-size or gum. The commercial product varies considerably. It is usually bound with gum arabic or dextrin. An inferior version is known as poster colour or poster paint. Gouache produces flat, matt, even colour, and, being thinned with water for use, it is a convenient and quick medium to employ, hence its continuing popularity with designers and illustrators....

Article

Joan H. O’Mara

Japanese paintings or woodblock prints depicting famous poets and poetesses often accompanied by the inscription of their names, with or without additional biographical information, and representative verses. By integrating calligraphy, poetry and painting in a single format, kasen’e (‘pictures of poetic immortals’) illustrate well the close interrelationship between these three art forms.

Originally the poets and poetesses designated in kasen’e as sages or ‘immortals’ (kasen) were accomplished masters of waka, the 31-syllable Japanese poetic form (also called tanka). According to tradition, a debate over the merits of various waka poets led the poet and critic Fujiwara no Kintō (966–1041) to name 31 men and 5 women from the Nara (ad 710–94) and Heian (794–1185) periods as ‘poetic immortals’. Although the kasen were selected, canonized and anthologized during the Heian period, the earliest surviving depictions date from the Kamakura period (1185–1333...

Article

Lionel Lambourne

Representations in painting, sculpture or the graphic arts of sports, games or other outdoor pastimes. This term is generally used to denote the depiction, from the 17th to the 19th century, of the field and blood sports that form a unique part of the British heritage. However, it is possible that cave paintings of minute human figures hunting gigantic bison, such as those in the caves of Altamira, Lascaux and other prehistoric sites, have a claim to be considered the earliest sporting scenes.

The human body in action features comparatively little as a theme in sporting art in the millennia between the agile Minoan figures leaping between the horns of bulls at Knossos and the nude swimmers depicted by David Hockney. It is true that much Ancient Greek art was devoted to athletic sports, while numerous medieval manuscripts and stained-glass windows of the 12th and 14th centuries (e.g. Gloucester Cathedral and ...