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Article

Gordon Campbell

Hindi term for ‘tie and dye’, a mode of dyeing in which knots are tied in the fabric to prevent knotted parts from absorbing the dye. The term was imported into Europe (with the spelling bandana or bandanna) to denote a richly coloured silk handkerchief, with spots left white or yellow by the process described above; the term is now applied to cotton handkerchiefs and headscarves....

Article

Batik  

Susi Dunsmore

Resist dyeing technique. Patterns are created on cloth (usually undyed cotton or silk) by painting, printing or stencilling designs in wax, rice or cassava paste, mud or some other dye-resistant substance on to those areas intended to retain their original colour after dyeing. Further patterns and colours can be introduced by altering or adding to the resist areas before redyeing. Finally, the resist media are removed by rubbing or washing. Delicate lines within the patterns, where the resist substance has cracked and allowed the dye to seep in, are characteristic of the technique.

The term batik is thought to derive from the Malay tik, to drip or drop, but exactly where and when the technique was first practised is uncertain; it seems likely that the principle was discovered independently in several different areas. The earliest known batiks (London, V&A, nos 1552–1899 and 1103–1900; Basle, Mus. Vlkerknd.), dated to the 5th–6th century...

Article

Calico  

Gordon Campbell

In early use, a generic name for cotton cloth from India, which was imported from Calicut (now Kozhikode), on the Malabar Coast of Kerala. The term subsequently came to denote similar European cloths. In late 19th-century England it was applied to any white unprinted cotton cloth, though in the USA and Scotland such cloths were called ‘cotton’. In modern American English it now denotes a coarse printed cotton cloth....

Article

Dhurrie  

Gordon Campbell

Article

Milo Cleveland Beach

(b Bombay, 1902; d New York, 1971).

American dealer of Indian birth. Following the decline of the family textile business, his father, Munchersa Heeramaneck, became an antiquities dealer and shrewdly developed a speciality in Chinese ceramics. As a youth, Nasli was assigned to the New Delhi office, but in 1922 he was sent to Paris to study and open a branch. He soon moved to New York, which became the final location for Heeramaneck Galleries. In 1939 Heeramaneck married Alice Arvine, an American portrait painter from New Haven, and she became an active partner in the business. They were responsible for the acquisition of many great works of Indian, Tibetan and Nepali sculpture, Mughal and Rajput painting, Ancient Near Eastern and Islamic art, and Central Asian (including nomadic) art by major American museums. They also formed a comprehensive private collection of South Asian art, including superlative paintings and sculptures from the Himalayan regions, and a smaller collection of ancient Near Eastern and Islamic art, both purchased by the ...

Article

Kincob  

Gordon Campbell

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Shawl  

Pamela Clabburn

Garment, originally of Indian origin, consisting of a square or oblong piece of fabric worn loosely over the head or shoulders. As articles of fashionable dress, shawls were not known in Europe until the last quarter of the 18th century. They had, however, been worn since the late 16th century in India, especially in Kashmir and other parts of the north, by both men and women, thrown over the head with one end over the shoulder. Indian shawls are finely and intricately woven, using a technique similar to that used in Europe for tapestries (see Textile §II 1.). The designs are in rich, strong but never harsh colours, and the grounds in off-white or in many subtle shades, especially deep yellow and nutmeg brown. Their main beauty, however, is the fine, soft wool from which they were woven. At its best (and most expensive) the wool came from the underbelly of the mountain goat, which grazed high up in the Himalayas. The higher the grazing, the finer the wool produced. The next best came from the flocks of goats herded by nomadic tribes....