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Article

M. Dolores Jiménez-Blanco

(b Madrid, 1942).

Spanish painter, sculptor and printmaker. After studying at the Escuela Superior de Bellas Artes in Madrid he came under the influence of Pop art during a stay in London in 1965. On settling again in Madrid in that year he began to concentrate on images of movement, as in the screenprint Story of the Man Who Falls I, for which he was awarded a prize at the Kraków Biennale in 1966. He continued to explore movement through serial forms and stereotyped images in plexiglass constructions such as the Changeable Movement series (1967) and from 1968 used computers as part of this process. These interests led to sculptures and paintings titled Transformable Movements, which he presented in association with aleatoric music.

Alexanco became increasingly involved with performance and collaborated with the Spanish composer Luis de Pablo (b 1930) on Soledad interrumpida (1971) and Historia natural...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 24 September 1930, in Benicia (California); died 2 November 1992, in Benicia.

Ceramicist, sculptor, painter, printmaker, draughtsman. Figures.

Pop Art, Funk Art.

Robert Arneson studied at the College of Marin Kentfield, California (1949-1951), California College of Arts and Crafts (...

Article

Canadian First Nations (We Wai Kai/Cape Mudge Band), 21st century, male.

Born 1975, in Richmond (British Columbia).

Painter, sculptor, printmaker, photographer.

The aesthetic of Sonny Assu (Liǥwilda’x̱w/Laich-kwil-tach) is a confluence of Northwest Coast formline motifs and popular Western culture. He is well versed in the traditional Kwakwaka’wakw arts of drum, blanket and basket making and uses these as the starting place of many of his artworks. Drawing on a pop sensibility, mass-media culture is used as a conduit to explore and expose these Kwakwaka’wakw traditions as well as the artist’s own mixed heritage. By bringing these seemingly desperate elements together, Assu’s works challenge popular notions of authenticity regarding Indigenous people and their art. Moreover, while the works may appear whimsical at first glance, they offer a sharp critique of Western society’s culture of consumption as it relates to colonisation, both historical and ongoing, in North America....

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Born 1940, in Luton.

Sculptor, draughtsman, printmaker.

Pop Art.

Clive Barker was associated with the Pop Art Movement in the early 1960s. His works from the years 1966 to 1969 included the use of facsimiles of everyday objects which he reproduced in brass, copper and bronze, either individually or in combinations, as, for example, ...

Article

Marco Livingstone

(b Luton, Bedfordshire, Aug 29, 1940).

English sculptor, draughtsman and printmaker. He studied at Luton College of Technology and Art from 1957 but abandoned the course in 1959, working instead on the assembly-line of the Vauxhall car factory in Luton for 18 months. The experience of helping to build beautiful, machine-made objects on the shop floor proved decisive on his choice of materials for his first sculptures in 1962: leather and chrome-plated metal. The idea of relying on specialist fabricators to achieve the best result made it easy for him to accept Marcel Duchamp’s notion of the ready-made, as applied to ordinary manufactured items designated as sculpture but not made by the artist’s own hands. Rather than simply taking things as he found them, however, Barker either commissioned fabricators to make them to his specifications as with his leather-clad Zip Boxes of 1962, which aligned him with Pop art or had the original objects recast or resurfaced so that the sculptures became non-functional surrogates for them. The techniques and materials he employed, the almost heroic elevation of the commonplace, the humorous touches and the acceptance of the banal and the kitsch all contribute to the provocative originality of Barker’s work of the 1960s and to its importance in anticipating and probably influencing the sculptures with which Jeff Koons made his name in the mid-1980s....

Article

Portuguese, 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1958.

Born 1935, in Alhandra, near Lisbon.

Painter, sculptor, screen printer. Figure compositions, interiors, landscapes with figures.

Pop Art, Nouvelle Figuration, Figuration Narrative.

René Bertholo was a graduate of the school of decorative art in Lisbon. He spent some time in Munich in ...

Article

Marco Livingstone

(b Dartford, Kent, June 25, 1932).

English painter, printmaker and sculptor. He studied at Gravesend Technical College and School of Art from 1946 to 1951, and from 1953 at the Royal College of Art, London, where he was awarded a First-Class Diploma in 1956. He then travelled through Europe for a year on a Leverhulme Research Award to study the popular and folk art that had already served him as a source of inspiration. While still a student Blake began producing paintings that openly testified to his love of popular entertainment and the ephemera of modern life, for example Children Reading Comics (1954; Carlisle, Mus. & A.G.), and which were phrased in a faux-naïf style that owed something to the example of American realist painters such as Ben Shahn. In these works Blake displayed his nostalgia for dying traditions not only by his preference for circus imagery but also by artificially weathering the irregular wooden panels on which he was then painting. His respect for fairground art, barge painting, tattooing, commercial art, illustration and other forms of image-making rooted in folkloric traditions led him to produce some of the first works to which the term ...

Article

Marco Livingstone

(b Portsmouth, June 19, 1937).

English painter, sculptor, photographer and printmaker. He studied painting and lithography at Yeovil School of Art in Somerset (1953–7), Guildford College of Art (1957–9) and the Royal College of Art, London (1959–62), where he was one of the students associated with Pop art. Like R. B. Kitaj and David Hockney, Boshier juxtaposed contrasting styles within his paintings, but he favoured topical subject-matter such as the space race, political events and the Americanization of Europe. The satirical edge of such paintings as Identi-kit Man (1962; London, Tate), which pictured the threat posed by advertising to individual identity, was prompted by his reading of Marshall McLuhan, Vance Packard and other commentators. In the autumn of 1962 Boshier went to India on a one-year scholarship, producing paintings based on Indian symbolism (accidentally destr.). Returning to England he adopted a hard-edged geometric style, often using shaped canvases, abandoning overt figuration but continuing to allude through form to architectural structures and to the grid plans of cities....

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 25 November 1932, in Paris.

Painter, sculptor, lithographer.

Pierre Celice's painting is brightly coloured and joyful. Though still figurative, it borders on Abstraction, borrowing from Pop Art and Alan Davie. Celice himself acknowledges the unpredictability of his sources and his exploration. He also became interested in three-dimensionality, executing reliefs in sheet metal to be painted and then used for architectural façades....

Article

Paraguayan, 20th century, male.

Born 1937, in Concepcion.

Painter, sculptor, engraver.

After a period of geometric abstraction, Colombino's work evolved towards figuration, the formal vocabulary of which is somewhat along the lines of Pop Art. These works are occasionally an expression of political criticism. He was awarded a prize at the exhibition ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 18 November 1933, in McPherson (Kansas).

Painter, draughtsman, printmaker, collage artist, assemblage artist, sculptor, film maker.

Pop Art, Funk Art.

Bruce Conner studied at Wichita University; at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln where he received a BFA in 1956; at Brooklyn Art School (...

Article

Jean E. Feinberg

(b Cincinnati, OH, June 6, 1935).

American painter, sculptor, printmaker, illustrator, performance artist, stage designer and poet. He studied art at the Cincinnati Arts Academy (1951–3) and later at the Boston Museum School and Ohio University (1954–7). In 1957 he married Nancy Minto and the following year they moved to New York. Dine’s first involvement with the art world was in his Happenings of 1959–60. These historic theatrical events, for example The Smiling Workman (performed at the Judson Gallery, New York, 1959), took place in chaotic, makeshift environments built by the artist–performer. During the same period he created his first assemblages, which incorporated found materials. Simultaneously he developed the method by which he produced his best known work—paintings, drawings, prints and sculptures that depict and expressively interpret common images and objects.

Clothing and domestic objects featured prominently in Dine’s paintings of the 1960s, with a range of favoured motifs including ties, shoes and bathroom items such as basins, showers and toothbrushes (e.g. ...

Article

Japanese, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1946, in Kagawa Prefecture.

Sculptor, painter, draughtsman, engraver.

Haraguchi Noriyuki studied at Nihon Uni­versity until 1970. His style can be described as Pop Art and he mainly uses heavy materials such as concrete, steel, copper and tar. Work by him was shown at the following: the seventh Exhibition of Contemporary Japanese Art (...

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Active in England between 1960 and 1985.

Born 1942, in Hollywood, Los Angeles (California).

Painter, draughtswoman, sculptor, engraver.

Pop Art.

The Brotherhood of Ruralists.

Jann Haworth studied art at UCLA, California, and the Slade School of Art in London, where she held her first public exhibition in ...

Article

Kristine Stiles

(b New Castle, IN, Sept 13, 1928).

American painter, sculptor, and printmaker. He studied at the Art Institute of Chicago (1949–53), the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture in Maine (summer 1953) and Edinburgh University and Edinburgh College of Art (1953–4), before settling in New York in 1954. There in the late 1950s he began assembling wood sculptures from found materials, often stencilling painted words on to them, as in Moon (h. 1.98 m, 1960; New York, MOMA). He called these works Herms after the quadrangular, stone stelae guardian figures that served as signposts in crossroads in ancient Greece and Rome. Indiana called himself a ‘sign painter’ to suggest the humble origins of his artistic activity in the American work ethic and to indicate his fascination with the use of words in signs. Joining his interest in Americana with the formal and signifying elements of signs, he visualized the superficial and illusory American Dream in paintings characterized by flat bright colours and clearly defined contours influenced by the hard-edge paintings by friends such as Ellsworth Kelly and Jack Youngerman....

Article

Elisabeth Lebovici

(b Neuilly-sur-Seine, nr Paris, Feb 22, 1939; d New York, Sept 4, 2008).

French painter, sculptor and printmaker. He briefly studied architecture in 1960 at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris but was self-taught as a painter. Sympathetic to Nouveau Réalisme but wishing to counter the lyricism of Art informel in the context of painting, he adopted a cool representational style, often using clichéd imagery. Such works brought him within the orbit of Pop art. Among his first paintings exhibited at the 2e Biennale de Paris (Paris, Mus. A. Mod. Ville Paris, 1961) next to an installation by Martial Raysse were visual puns on several vividly coloured compositions entitled Jeu de Jacquet (1961; see 1978 exh. cat.), a pun on his name and the game of backgammon, on which he based their formats. In 1962 he instituted a series of paintings entitled Camouflages, in which he superimposed a vulgar symbol on to a reproduction of a work of art: a Shell petrol pump on Botticelli’s Venus (...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 15 May 1930, in Allendale (South Carolina) or Augusta (Georgia).

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman, printmaker, mixed media, costume and set designer, illustrator. Encaustic.

Neo-Dadaism, Pop Art.

Jasper Johns grew up in South Carolina. He attended courses in art and painting at the University of South Carolina and, in 1948, enrolled in a commercial art school for two semesters in New York City. He served in the US Army for two years during the Korean War but was able to resume his studies at City College in New York in 1953, thanks to the GI Bill. It was at this time that he met his lifelong friend Robert Rauschenberg, the composer John Cage, and the dancer Merce Cunningham. He acted as artistic adviser for Cage and Cunningham’s dance company until 1972, collaborating with painters such as Robert Morris, Frank Stella, Bruce Nauman, and Andy Warhol. He lives and works in New York State and St Martin in the French West Indies. He has been a member of the New York Academy of Arts and Letters since 1988....

Article

Michael Crichton

(b Augusta, GA, May 15, 1930).

American painter, sculptor, and printmaker. With Robert Rauschenberg, he was one of the leading figures in the American Pop art movement, and he became particularly well known for his use of the imagery of targets, flags, maps, and other instantly recognizable subjects. Although he attended the University of South Carolina for over a year, and later briefly attended an art school in New York, Johns is considered a self-taught artist. His readings in psychology and philosophy, particularly the work of Wittgenstein; his study of Cézanne, Duchamp, Leonardo, Picasso, and other artists; and his love of poetry have all found expression in his work. His attention to history and his logical rigour led him to create a progressive body of work.

In 1954, after a dream, Johns painted a picture of the American flag (see fig.). At the time he was living in New York, as a struggling young artist. During the three years that followed, Johns painted more flags, as well as targets, alphabets, and other emblematic, impersonal images. None of this work was formally exhibited until ...

Article

Marco Livingstone

(b Southampton, Sept 1, 1937).

English painter, sculptor and printmaker. He studied at Hornsey College of Art, London (1955–9, 1960–61), spending 1959–60 at the Royal College of Art, where he was associated with the rise of Pop art. Like Hockney and Kitaj he mixed conflicting styles, for instance in the Battle of Hastings (1961–2; London, Tate), but he drew less from contemporary culture than from the colour abstractions of Kandinsky and Robert Delaunay. Klee’s writings encouraged him to adopt a pedagogical approach, as shown in his representation of movement through canvas shape in 3rd Bus (1962; Birmingham, Mus. & A.G.). Motivated by the theories of Jung and Nietzsche, he began in paintings such as Hermaphrodite (1963; Liverpool, Walker A.G.) to depict fused male/female couples as metaphors of the creative act. While living in New York (1964–5) he discovered a rich fund of imagery in sexually motivated popular illustration of the 1940s and 1950s. Henceforth, in paintings such as ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 27 October, 1923, in New York; died 29 September 1997, in New York.

Painter, draughtsman, sculptor, lithographer. Murals.

Pop Art.

In 1939, Roy Lichtenstein participated in the summer classes at the Art Students’ League in New York, where he was taught by Reginald Marsh. From 1940 to 1942, he studied at Ohio State University, with Hoyt L. Sherman before being drafted into military service in Europe from 1943 to 1945. After World War II he briefly stayed in Paris where he studied French language and civilization. From 1946 to 1948, he resumed his art studies at the School of Fine Arts of Ohio State University thanks to a G.I. Bill (an ex-combatants’ bursary). He taught art from 1948 to 1951, when he moved to Cleveland, Ohio, where he worked as a teacher, designer, and decorator. In 1957, he became assistant professor of art at the State University of New York at Oswego. In 1960, he was appointed to Douglass College at Rutgers University, New Jersey, where he met Allan Kaprow. In 1963, he took a one-year leave and settled in New York. At the end of the year he resigned from Rutgers University to dedicate himself to his art. He settled in Southampton, Long Island, in 1970. In 1977, he obtained the Skowhegan Medal for Painting and received a Doctorate of Fine Arts from California Institute of the Arts at Valencia, an honorary Doctorate of Fine Arts from Southampton College in New York in 1980, an honorary Doctorate of Humanities from his alma mater, Ohio State University in 1988, an honorary doctorate from the Royal College of Art, London, in 1993, and an honorary Doctorate of Fine Arts from George Washington University, in Washington, DC. In 1979, he was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in New York....