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Jens Peter Munk

(b Copenhagen, Sept 11, 1743; d Frederiksdal, Copenhagen, June 4, 1809).

Danish painter, designer and architect. His paintings reveal both Neo-classical and Romantic interests and include history paintings as well as literary and mythological works. The variety of his subject-matter reflects his wide learning, a feature further evidenced by the broad range of his creative output. In addition to painting, he produced decorative work, sculpture and furniture designs, as well as being engaged as an architect. Successfully combining both intellectual and imaginative powers, he came to be fully appreciated only in the 1980s.

He studied at the Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi in Copenhagen (1764–72), and in 1767 he assisted Johan Edvard Mandelberg (1730–86) in painting the domed hall of the Fredensborg Slot with scenes from the Homeric epic the Iliad. In 1772 he was granted a five-year travelling scholarship from the Kunstakademi to study in Rome. During his Roman sojourn he extensively copied works of art from the period of antiquity up to that of the Carracci family. His friendships with the Danish painter Jens Juel, the Swedish sculptor Johan Tobias Sergel and the Swiss painter Johann Heinrich Fuseli placed him among artists who were in the mainstream of a widespread upheaval in European art. In these years Abildgaard developed both Neo-classical and Romantic tastes; his masterpiece of the period is ...


French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1737, in Valenciennes; died 1820, in Valenciennes.


Grégoire Adam is not mentioned in artists' records, but Gombert, the architect from Lille who built the Hôtel Merghelynck at Ypres, thought him fit to compete with the best artists of French Flanders in the ornamentation of this supreme expression of 18th-century art. He decorated one of the salons, installing in it medallions of ...


Italian, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 24 July 1742, in Bedano; died 15 or 16 November 1839, in Milan.

Sculptor, designer of ornamental architectural features, draughtsman.

Studied initially at an atelier of sculpture in Parma, then at the academy there and in Rome. His fame as a designer of ornamental features spread rapidly and he was appointed to teach at the Milan academy in ...


French, 19th century, male.

Born 1841, in Toulon; died 1904, in Marseilles.

Painter, architect. Landscapes.

Brother of the sculptor André Allar. An architect by profession, Gaudensi Allar was also a landscape painter who worked with broad brushstrokes and heavily applied colour. He was distinguished by his ability to capture ethnic scenes with accuracy, and with no hint of fake orientalism....


Spanish, 19th century, male.

Born 18 July 1869, in Madrid.

Sculptor, painter, architect.

After completing his studies at Madrid's Real Academia de San Fernando, Amutio travelled to Rome. His sculptures were awarded first class medals at the national art exhibitions in Madrid between 1890 and ...


French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1953, in Paris.

Sculptor, draughtsman.


Jean Anguera is the grandson of the sculptor Pablo Gargallo. He graduated in architecture in 1978 (UP2) in Paris. He also attended lectures by César Baldaccini at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris (...


Myriam A. Ribeiro de Oliveira and Liliana Herrera



Frederick N. Bohrer

Style of the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th, inspired by Assyrian artefacts of the 9th to 7th centuries bc. These were first brought to public attention through the excavations by Paul-Emile Botta (1802–70) at Khorsabad and Austen Henry Layard at Nimrud in the 1840s. By 1847 both the Louvre in Paris and the British Museum in London had begun to display these objects, the size and popularity of which were such that the Louvre created a separate Musée des Antiquités Orientales, while the British Museum opened its separate Nineveh Gallery in 1853. The same popularity, fuelled by Layard’s best-selling Nineveh and its Remains (London, 1849) and Botta’s elaborate Monument de Ninive (Paris, 1849–50), led to further explorations elsewhere in Mesopotamia.

Assyrian revivalism first appeared in England rather than France, which was then in political turmoil. The earliest forms of emulation can be found in the decorative arts, such as the ‘Assyrian style’ jewellery that was produced in England from as early as ...


Richard Cork


(b Manchester, Jan 17, 1873; d Paris, Sept 21, 1931).

English painter, sculptor and draughtsman. He studied singing and music in Berlin and Paris. At first he earned his living by establishing himself as a singing teacher in Liverpool and London. By July 1913, when he exhibited in the Allied Artists’ Association in London, he was devoting an increasing amount of his energies to painting. His early work was Fauvist in affiliation, reflecting perhaps the teaching he had received at La Palette in Paris. Contact with Wyndham Lewis and the Vorticists led him to pursue a more abstract path. In the spring of 1914 he joined the Rebel Art Centre with Wyndham Lewis and other artists who appeared in Blast magazine later that year.

Little is known about the development of Atkinson’s work at this crucial stage in his career. His signature was on the manifesto in the first issue of Blast, but his work was not reproduced in the magazine; his continuing involvement with other forms of art was demonstrated when his book of poems, ...



French, 19th century, male.

Engraver, sculptor, designer of ornamental architectural features.

Aubin's surname is on record in connection with the plasterwork decorating the pavilions on the Place de la Concorde in Paris in 1836.


French, 19th century, male.

Born 7 January 1830, in Remenoville; died September 1895, in Paris.

Sculptor. Religious subjects, figures, mythological figures, architectural views. Busts, statues, groups, monuments.

Charles Eloy Bailly studied under Robinet at the École des Beaux-Arts in 1855 and exhibited at the Paris Salon for the first time in ...


German, 19th century, male.

Born 17 May 1800, in Ansbach; died 25 September 1876.

Sculptor, painter.

Bandel began as a pupil of the architect Karl von Fischer in Munich, entering the city's academy of art in 1820. There he devoted himself to oil and watercolour painting under the guidance of Peter von Langer, Hess, Seidl, Hauber and Kellerhoven. While studying colour, Bandel also tried his hand at sculpture in the studio of the sculptor Johann Nepomuk Haller. Some time around ...


Belgian, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 8 September 1768, in Namur; died 10 June 1826.

Architect, sculptor, engraver, metal worker.

Barbier studied first in Belgium before completing his studies in Antwerp at the studio of J. Verbekt. He was appointed sculptor of the king's buildings and lived for a time at the Louvre. His works include medallions of ...



French, 19th century, male.

Active in Paris.

Sculptor, designer of ornamental architectural features.

Barral worked on the new Sorbonne building and the town hall of the 16th arrondissement in Paris (1873-1877).


Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1836, in Siena; died 1922.

Sculptor (wood), designer of ornamental architectural features. Religious furnishings.

Bartalozzi worked principally with the wood sculptor Nicodemo Ferri, chiefly on choir stalls for Siena Cathedral and a credenza for Marquis Ferdinando Pieri Nerli of Siena. He was also involved in carving the pianoforte presented by the City of Naples as a wedding gift to the King of Italy....


French, 19th century, male.

Born 2 August 1834, in Colmar (Upper Rhine); died 4 October 1904, in Paris.

Sculptor. Animals. Statues, monuments.

Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi studied architecture in Colmar, then moved to Paris, where he worked in the studios of the painter Ary Scheffer and the sculptors Jean-François Soitoux and Antoine Etex. Around ...


Ettore Spalletti

(b Savignano, nr Prato, Jan 7, 1777; d Florence, Jan 20, 1850).

Italian sculptor and draughtsman. He was one of the most independent-minded sculptors in Italy in the generation after Antonio Canova. His early work is in the Neo-classical style predominant throughout Europe around the turn of the century. While in the Paris studio of Jacques-Louis David he became interested in the art of the Quattrocento, an interest confirmed when he settled in Florence after 1815. His later works combine Neo-classical and neo-Renaissance elements with, particularly in his portraits, a strong taste for naturalism. In 1812 he held a series of classes at the Florentine Accademia di Belle Arti, astonishing his colleagues by instructing his model to take up a series of instantaneous and casual poses, instead of the customary carefully contrived stance taken from a famous work of art. In 1839 he was made a professor at the Accademia, and again overturned traditional academic notions, this time by presenting the pupils in the life class with a hunchbacked model. (For a detailed discussion of Bartolini’s unusual views on the imitation of nature see ...


Fiona Pearson

(b Stevenage, Herts, April 26, 1850; d London, Jan 30, 1899).

English sculptor. He served as an architect’s clerk before his apprenticeship (c. 1866) as a mason and carver with the architectural sculptors Farmer & Brindley. In the firm’s employ he travelled throughout the provinces in 1869–79, carving details on buildings. In 1879 Bates decided to make the transition from craftsman to artist and enrolled at the newly founded South London Technical Art School in Kennington for modelling classes run by the exiled French sculptor Jules Dalou and his successor William S. Frith (1850–1924). Like many of his contemporaries, Bates moved on to the Royal Academy Schools in 1881 and in 1883 won the Academy’s Gold Medal Travelling Scholarship with a modelled low relief, Socrates Teaching the People in the Agora (1886; marble version, U. Manchester).

On the advice of Dalou, Bates took a studio of his own in Paris (1883–5). Through his teacher’s guidance and Rodin’s example he formed his own style, a unique blend of classicism and romantic realism. Bates was a major figure in the movement known as the ...


British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 4 April 1872, in London; died 10 July 1953, in London.

Sculptor, copyist. Architectural monuments.

Gilbert Bayes was the son of Albert Walter Bayes and the brother of Jessie and Walter Bayes. He exhibited two wax work models at the Royal Academy in ...


French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 21 June 1750, in Le Havre; died 15 April 1818, in Paris.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman, designer of ornamental architectural features. Allegorical subjects, portraits. Busts.

A pupil of Pajou, Beauvallet was given the task of creating reliefs to decorate the Salle des Gardes in the Château de Compiègne in ...