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Article

British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1898, in Liverpool; died 1978, in London.

Sculptor, painter, printer. Portraits, cityscapes, still-lifes.

Arnold Auerbach took art classes at the Liverpool Institute as a boy before going on to study at the Liverpool School of Art. He also studied in Paris and in Switzerland. He was enlisted during World War I, but was invalided out of the army in ...

Article

Vanina Costa

(b Nantes, Sept 17, 1907; d Paris, May 8, 1977).

French painter, sculptor, draughtsman and poet. He moved in 1926 to Paris, where he became involved with Surrealism, soon afterwards publishing his first collection of poems, Opoponax (Paris, 1927). In 1934 he exhibited a series of automatic drawings, which were followed by images produced with the assistance of objets trouvés: in Street Object (1936; Paris, Pompidou), for instance, he placed a sheet of paper on the road and then drove a car over it so as to leave the imprint of the tyre tracks. Another work of this period consisted of a bus sign bearing the same letters as his initials, so that it could be read as his signature. He also produced assemblages in a Surrealist spirit, such as Morphology of Desire (wood, plaster, metal, candle and torch, 1934–7; Paris, Pompidou). After World War II Bryen turned increasingly towards painting, through which he became a leading exponent of ...

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 21 November 1914, in Buenos Aires. Died 1999.

Sculptor. Groups.

Alberto Carlisky began by studying journalism in Argentina, before militating against fascism in support of the Spanish Republicans. After World War II he went to Europe and stayed first in Italy, where he studied classical painting and completed several masks and small figurines. In ...

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1939, in Liège.

Painter, sculptor, video artist, film producer. Comic strips.

Jacques Charlier lives and works in Liège. In 1982 he had La route de l'art published in comic strip form by the publishers Gewad and Moretti in Ghent. He draws together the activities of painting, sculpture, video, films and comic strips in order to deal with one common theme: art and the world of art, highlighting its contradictions and paradoxes. In an exhibition of photographs of reports by the Belgian organisation STP, ...

Article

Chinese, 20th–21st century, male.

Born 1953.

Painter, sculptor. Portraits, still-lifes, landscapes.

or Zheng Zaidong

Cheng Tsai-tung trained in journalism before switching to painting. While technically fairly rudimentary, his work proceeds from a synthetic vision that he renders in large flat areas.

1984–1985, Taiwan New Painting...

Article

French, 20th century, female.

Born in Paris.

Sculptor. Busts.

A pupil of Félix Fevola, Chonez exhibited at the Salon des Artistes Français and the Salon des Tuileries from 1929 to 1939 before embarking on a second career as a journalist.

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1952, in Paris.

Sculptor, painter.

Jean-Marc Debenedetti started out as a poet and, as such, was a co-founder of the literary review Soror (1972-1975) and, from 1979 to 1986, the founder-editor of a further review, Ellébore. He makes no real distinction between his activities as a poet and as a sculptor. His sculptures are essentially anthropomorphic, ranging in style from the figurative to the abstract. He has exhibited since ...

Article

Stephen Bann

(b Nassau, Bahamas, Oct 28, 1925; d Dunsyre, Scotland, March 27, 2006).

Scottish sculptor, graphic artist and poet. Brought up in Scotland, he briefly attended Glasgow School of Art and first made his reputation as a writer, publishing short stories and plays in the 1950s. In 1961 he founded the Wild Hawthorn Press with Jessie McGuffie and within a few years had established himself internationally as Britain’s foremost concrete poet (see Concrete poetry). His publications also played an important role in the initial dissemination of his work as a visual artist. As a sculptor, he has worked collaboratively in a wide range of materials, having his designs executed as stone-carvings, as constructed objects and even in the form of neon lighting.

In 1966 Finlay and his wife, Sue, moved to the hillside farm of Stonypath, south-west of Edinburgh, and began to transform the surrounding acres into a unique garden, which he named Little Sparta. He revived the traditional notion of the poet’s garden, arranging ponds, trees and vegetation to provide a responsive environment for sundials, inscriptions, columns and garden temples. As the proponent of a rigorous classicism and as the defender of Little Sparta against the intrusions of local bureaucracy, he insisted on the role of the artist as a moralist who comments sharply on cultural affairs. The esteem won by Finlay’s artistic stance and style is attested by many important large-scale projects undertaken throughout the world. The ‘Sacred Grove’, created between ...

Article

Cuban, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA.

Born 1914, in Cuba; died 2002.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman.

Julio Girona travelled in France and studied sculpture with Maillol before moving to the USA. He is a painter, writer, journalist and sculptor. Girona incorporates into his vast canvases words which play an active role in the composition. Signs suggestive of graffiti and almost abstract, break through richly worked almost monochrome surfaces that have been painted over and over....

Article

Roberta K. Tarbell

(b Concarneau, June 29, 1890; d Cape Neddick, nr Ogunquit, ME, April 20, 1970).

American sculptor and teacher of French birth. In 1901, the painter, writer, critic, gallery proprietor, and publisher Hamilton Easter Field (1873–1922) brought Laurent to New York as his protégé and sponsored Laurent’s study of avant-garde art in Paris and Rome from 1905 to 1909. Laurent was intrigued by African art which he saw in the studio of Pablo Picasso, the paintings of Paul Cézanne, and the sculptures by Paul Gauguin and Aristide Maillol. Except for a few painting lessons with Cubist Frank Burty Haviland (1886–1971), brother of Paul B. Haviland (associate editor of Camera Work), and American modernist Maurice Sterne, Laurent had little formal training. Field and Laurent founded a modern art school in Ogunquit, ME (1910), where Laurent taught each summer for the rest of his life. Field, Laurent, and Marsden Hartley were among the first to collect folk art in Maine....

Article

Roberta K. Tarbell

(b Concarneau, June 29, 1890; d Cape Neddick, nr. Ogunquit, ME, April 20, 1970).

American sculptor and teacher of French birth. In 1901, the painter, writer, critic, gallery proprietor and publisher Hamilton Easter Field (1873–1922) brought Laurent to New York as his protégé and sponsored Laurent’s study of avant-garde art in Paris and Rome from 1905 to 1909. Laurent was intrigued by African art which he saw in Picasso’s studio, Cézanne’s paintings and the sculptures of Gauguin and Maillol. Except for a few painting lessons with Cubist Frank Burty Haviland (1886–1971), brother of Paul B. Haviland (associate editor of Camera Work), and American modernist Maurice Sterne, Laurent had little formal training. Field and Laurent founded a modern art school in Ogunquit, ME (1910), where Laurent taught each summer for the rest of his life. Field, Laurent and Marsden Hartley were among the first to collect folk art in Maine.

Laurent’s pioneering directly-carved wood sculptures include the primitivist relief ...

Article

Dutch, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1968, in Volkel.

Sculptor of assemblages, installation artist, draughtsman, publisher.

Conceptual Art.

Since 1986 Mark Manders has considered his works to be self-portraits, buildings inhabited by himself or 'self-portrait dwellings'. At exhibitions he first fits out the allocated space, working on all the surfaces, walls and floor. Then, in this 'container-environment', he proceeds to install significant elements from each of his creations; these elements are joined by assemblage, connections or various links. To this majority of pre-existing elements, which he has deliberately selected in order to reunite them, and which are a testimonial of his relationship with the outside world, he adds others that he has made himself, and which are generally in the schematic image of a living creature, human or animal, and spring in outline from his inner world....

Article

Nando  

Italian, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 1912, in Venice.

Painter, draughtsman, sculptor. Figures, nudes.

Nando gave up journalism in 1950 to devote his time to the fine arts; he went on to exhibit solo from 1951, both in Italy (notably at the Galleria del Naviglio in Milan) and in Paris. He went through an initial abstract period when he was particularly concerned to integrate mural reliefs, mobiles and components made of wood and rope into an architectural whole. Later he abandoned abstraction in favour of figurative compositions, working from models whose erotic poses were such that he was at one point charged with indecency. His paintings, not least those on canvas or mounted on canvas with an accompanying text, exhibit the same preoccupation. His latter sculptures are predominantly in terracotta but sometimes in bronze....

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1 May 1885, in Neerwinden; died 31 October 1922, in Brussels.

Painter, sculptor, engraver.

Dadaism.

Clément Pansaers was known above all for his poetical activity in the Dada movement. In 1917 he founded the journal Résurrection, which ran for five issues until ...

Article

Canadian First Nations, 20th century, male. OBC (Order of British Columbia).

Born 12 January 1920, in the Queen Charlotte Islands (British Columbia); died 13 March 1998.

Sculptor, goldsmith, jewelry-maker, screen-printer, painter, and draughtsman.

Bill Reid was the son of a Haida First Nation mother, Sophie Gladstone Reid, of the Raven/Wolf clan, and an American father, William Ronald Reid. He was to become a leading expert on Haida art and culture and is credited with the modern resurgence of Haida carving, a skill which he had learnt from his maternal grandfather. His grandfather had himself received training from Charles Edenshaw, a Haida master carver of an earlier generation....

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1901, in Como; died 1957, in Como.

Painter, sculptor, decorative artist.

MAC (Movimento Arte Concreta).

Manlio Rho did various jobs in Como and in Lombardy, including that of journalist. He was close to the Como group and, in particular, to Giuseppe Terragni, Pietro Lingero, Alberto Sartoris and the painter Mario Radice. In ...

Article

Swiss, 20th century, female.

Active in France.

Born 1937, in Zurich.

Sculptor. Figures, nudes.

Former journalist and photographer Ruth Richard moved to France in 1963 and followed sculpture and architecture classes at the annex to the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. She sculpts in bronze, frequently on a monumental scale. She has participated in group exhibitions in France, the USA and China....

Article

M. N. Sokolov

(Mikhaylovich) [Chemiakin, Mihail]

(b Moscow, May 4, 1943).

Russian painter, graphic designer, sculptor and publisher. One of the most important representatives of the St Petersburg tradition of nonconformist art, he was born to a military family and spent his early years in the German Democratic Republic. His family returned to the USSR in 1957 and until 1961 he studied at the secondary school of art attached to the Il’ya Repin Institute of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, Leningrad (now St Petersburg). His work combines the World of Art tradition with the surreal grotesque, portraying the world as a colourful carnival, intimidating in its terrifying metamorphoses, but drawing upon a wealth of artistic styles and psychologically striking tones. He was a master of the anarchic, bohemian life, and the poet Andrey Voznesensky (b 1933) described him as the ‘black prince of the Russian Underground’. After confrontations with the authorities, notably his participation in a group exhibition by underground artists of the ...

Article

Latvian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 3 November 1874, in Rujiena; died 1954.

Painter, sculptor, engraver (etching), book designer.

Rukis (The Gnome).

Gustavs Skilters studied at the Stieglitz Institute in St Petersburg and was at that time he was a member of Rukis , an association of Latvian artists and art students in the capital that promoted realism and national identity through art. He obtained a study grant from the Institute, which enabled him to visit Paris, where he received advice from Rodin. From ...

Article

Romanian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Died 1919.

Sculptor.

Very little is known about Spangher. He is mentioned as having participated in the exhibitions of the Today ( MA) journal founded by Lajos Kassak. Kassak was interested in the latest international trends, especially in Dadaism and the Expressionism of ...