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Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 14 November 1925, in La Ciotat.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, sculptor, lithographer, illustrator. Figure compositions, figures, nudes, portraits, interiors, landscapes, urban landscapes, seascapes, still-lifes. Wall decorations.

Symbolism.

Jean-Pierre Alaux was the son of François Alaux and the great-great-grandson of Jean-Paul Alaux. From ...

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 11 January 1953, in Saïda.

Painter, pastellist, sculptor, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator. Designs for stained glass.

Figuration Libre, Citationism.

Jean-Michel Albérola lived in Algeria until 1962. He then went to France, living successively in several cities, including Marseilles, Toulouse, Avignon and Paris. He studied in Marseilles and in Aix-en-Provence. Until ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 2 December 1899, in Albisola; died May 1971, in Albisola.

Ceramicist, draughtsman, painter, sculptor, screen printer, photographer. Artists' books.

Futurism.

Tullio d'Albisola studied with his father Giuseppe, a master potter, then with Gaetano Ballardini at the international university pottery class in Faenza, which he entered in ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 28 November 1907, in Charlotte (North Carolina); died 27 April 1977, in New York.

Painter, sculptor, illustrator, lithographer. Murals.

Groups: Spiral, 306.

Charles Alston moved to New York with his mother in 1914, after his father died. Alston received his BA and MA (...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 13 November 1930, in Madison (Georgia).

Painter, collage artist, installation artist, sculptor, photographer, illustrator, draughtsman, watercolourist, print artist. Figures, portraits, interiors with figures, landscapes, animals.

African-American artist Benny Andrews served in the USA Air Force during the Korean War. He studied at the Art Institute of Chicago, graduating with a BFA in ...

Article

Austrian, 20th century, male.

Born 10 March 1871, in Waidhofen-am-Ybbs; died 19 May 1956, in Vienna.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, illustrator. Genre scenes. Toys.

Art Nouveau.

Secession group.

Andri studied under Julius Berger and Edouard Lichtenfels at the Venice Academy, then, from 1892, under Claus Meyer at Karlsruhe Academy, before returning to settle in Venice. In ...

Article

Mark Jones

(b Bordeaux, Nov 4, 1761; d Paris, Dec 10, 1822).

French medallist, engraver and illustrator. He was first apprenticed to the medallist André Lavau (d 1808) and then attended the Académie de Peinture et de Sculpture in Bordeaux. In 1786 he travelled to Paris and entered the workshop of Nicolas-Marie Gatteaux. His first great success was a large, realistic and highly detailed medal representing the Fall of the Bastille (1789); because it would have been difficult and risky to strike, he produced it in the form of single-sided lead impressions or clichés, coloured to resemble bronze. The following year he used this novel technique again, to produce an equally successful companion piece illustrating the Arrival of Louis XVI in Paris. Andrieu lay low during the latter part of the French Revolution, engraving vignettes and illustrating an edition of Virgil by Firmin Didot (1764–1836). He reappeared in 1800, with medals of the Passage of the Great St Bernard...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 16 September 1886, in Strasbourg; died 7 June 1966, in Basel.

Collage artist, engraver, sculptor, draughtsman, illustrator, poet.

Dadaism.

Der Moderne Bund, Dadaist groups in Zurich and Cologne, Artistes Radicaux, Das Neue Leben, Paris Surrealist Group, Abstraction-Création.

Hans Arp joined the École des Arts et Métiers in Strasbourg in 1902, at the age of 16. In 1903 he began painting and contributed to a local magazine. In 1904 he made his first trip to Paris. From 1905 to 1907 he studied under Ludwig von Hoffmann at the fine arts academy in Weimar, where he attended modern art exhibitions. He returned to Strasbourg, which his family then left for Weggis, on the edge of the Lac des Quatre Cantons in Switzerland. Between 1908 and 1910 he made a second trip to Paris and worked for a time at the Académie Julian. In Weggis he completed his first Abstract compositions and learned the art of modelling. In 1911 he co-founded the group...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 2 February 1914, in Washington (North Carolina), 1919, according to some sources; died 1977.

Sculptor, print artist, ceramicist, illustrator.

William E. Artis studied at the University of Syracuse, New York, New York State University and the Art Students League, New York. He was also a student of Augusta Savage at the Harlem Community Art Center, New York. Artis expressed his humanist ideals by depicting impassive faces in a purified style, combining African and classical sculpture....

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1923, in Sori, near Genoa.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, illustrator.

Groups: Forma 1 Group until 1949, Il Pro e il Contro.

After studying for a year at the fine art academy in Palermo, Attardi decided to become a painter and moved to Rome. In 1947 he became one of the founders of the group ...

Article

American, 21st century, female.

Born 1981, in San Francisco.

Painter, sculptor, printmaker, musician. Artists’ books.

After graduating from Stanford University in 2003, Tauba Auerbach worked as a sign painter in San Francisco, an influence reflected in many of her early works. This interest in the visual aspects of language and text manifested itself in an important series of calligraphic drawings and artists’ books. Her most notable body of work may be the ‘fold’ paintings, in which canvas supports are physically folded and creased, then spread out and spray painted from various angles, and with multiple colours; the canvases are then stretched totally flat, so that fold patterns exist only as painted remnants of the surfaces’ former topography. She has further explored the boundaries and visual relationships between two- and three-dimensionality in her group of pop-up books, and in a number of books made by photographing cross-sections of a solid surface, such as a block of marble or wood, as it is gradually sanded down....

Article

Swiss, 20th century, male.

Born 1925, in La Chaux-de-Fonds (Neuchâtel).

Engraver, sculptor, illustrator.

Jean-Édouard Augsburger studied engraving at the art college in La Chaux de Fonds. He illustrated The Sea, by Federico García Lorca.

Augsburger staged his first exhibition in La-Chaux-de-Fonds in 1950, followed by another in ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 22 July 1898, in Châteauroux; died 1 July 1970, in Chezal-Benoit (Cher).

Painter, sculptor, engraver, decorative artist, illustrator. Portraits, landscapes.

Robert Barriot studied at the École des Arts Décoratifs in Paris in 1916 and was admitted to the École des Beaux-Arts in ...

Article

Irma B. Jaffe

(b New Brunswick, NJ, Aug 15, 1922; d Northampton, MA, June 3, 2000).

American sculptor, illustrator and printmaker. Baskin studied at the New York University School of Architecture and Allied Arts (1939–41), the School of Fine Art (1941–3) and New School for Social Research (1949). He also studied at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Paris (1950) and the Accademia delle Belle Arti in Florence (1951). Inspired by the iconic, monolithic imagery of Ancient Egyptian and Sumerian art, and the similar stylistic qualities of Romanesque and Italian Gothic, he consistently and inventively made use of the archaic mode in such prints as the powerful woodcut Man of Peace (1952; see Fern and O’Sullivan, p. 61) as well as in his sculpture. A traditionalist, he carved in wood and stone, and modelled in clay, taking the human figure as his subject. He firmly believed that painting and sculpture should mediate between artist and viewer some moral insight about human experience, and he was convinced that abstract art could not do this. Throughout his career he rejected spatial penetration of form, preferring the holistic look of such works as the ...

Article

Nelly Perazzo

(b Torroella de Montgri, Catalonia, March 3, 1911; d Buenos Aires, Oct 8, 1966).

Argentine painter, printmaker, illustrator, sculptor and stage designer of Spanish Catalan birth. He arrived in Buenos Aires in 1913. Although his uncle, José Planas Casas (b Catalonia, 1900; d Argentina, 1960), taught him the rudiments of art, he was basically self-taught and began to exhibit his work in 1934. Synthesizing ideas from Zen philosophy, psychoanalysis and the theories on cosmic energy espoused by the Austrian psychologist Wilhelm Reich with his interests in automatism, poetry and painting, he found a creative sense of direction from an early age. He applied his methods not only to paintings but to stage designs, illustrations, collages, prints, polychrome sculptures and boxlike constructions; as a painter he worked both in tempera and in oil, and he also produced 72 murals.

In 1936 Batlle Planas inaugurated a Surrealist phase with a series entitled Paranoiac X-rays, followed by another group of pictures, Tibetan Series, populated by spectral figures related to works by Yves Tanguy. Between ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1881, in Magdeburg (Saxony-Anhalt), Germany; died 1971.

Painter, engraver (wood), sculptor, illustrator. Landscapes, genre scenes. Marionettes.

Japonisme.

Provincetown Artists' Colony.

At the age of 10, Gustave Baumann emigrated to Chicago with his family. In 1898, he worked for an engraver and took evening classes at the Art Institute. He opened an advertising studio in ...

Article

Fiorella Sricchia Santoro

(di Giacomo di Pace)

(b Cortine in Valdibiana Montaperti, 1484; d Siena, between Jan and May 1551).

Italian painter, sculptor, draughtsman, printmaker and illuminator. He was one of the protagonists, perhaps even the most precocious, of Tuscan Mannerism, which he practised with a strong sense of his Sienese artistic background but at the same time with an awareness of contemporary developments in Florence and Rome. He responded to the new demand for feeling and fantasy while retaining the formal language of the early 16th century. None of Beccafumi’s works is signed or dated, but his highly personal maniera has facilitated almost unanimous agreement regarding the definition of his corpus and the principal areas of influence on it. However, some questions concerning the circumstances of his early career and the choices available to him remain unanswered. The more extreme forms of Beccafumi’s reckless experimentation underwent a critical reappraisal only in the later 20th century.

The primary sources of information concerning Beccafumi are Vasari’s biography (1568) and archival findings, mostly 19th century, relating to the artist. Vasari, although a direct acquaintance of Beccafumi in his last years and in a position to gather information from mutual friends, was, predictably, unreliable in regard to his early career. According to Vasari, Mecherino, the son of a poor farmer named Giacomo di Pace, became the protégé of ...

Article

British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 April 1863, in London; died 27 November 1933, in London.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, illustrator. Figure compositions, religious subjects, mythological subjects, landscapes.

Robert Anning Bell was the pupil of Aimé Morot in Paris and of Sir George Frampton in London. He taught at University College, Liverpool (...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Active also in France.

Born 1902 , in Kattowitz, Germany (now Katowice, Poland); died 24 February 1975 , in Paris.

Photographer, Painter (gouache), sculptor, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator. Portraits.

Surrealist group.

Raised in a family of engineers, Hans Bellmer trained as a technical draughtsman at the polytechnic college in Berlin ...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 30 January 1782, in Bordeaux; died 21 February 1863, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache), engraver, lithographer, illustrator. Historical subjects, mythological subjects, genre scenes, architectural interiors. Wall decorations, low reliefs.

Studied initially in Bordeaux under Pierre Lacour the Elder, then became a pupil of Vincent and David. He exhibited on a regular basis at Salons between ...