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Article

Tessa Garton

(fl Apulia, c. 1039–41).

Italian sculptor. His name occurs in inscriptions on a marble pulpit in Canosa Cathedral and on the beams of similar pulpits at S Maria, Siponto, and the Sanctuary of S Michele at Monte Sant’Angelo. The inscription on the Canosa pulpit (per iussionem domini mei guitberti venerabilis presbiteri, ego acceptus peccator archidiaconus feci[?t] hoc opus) identifies Acceptus as an archdeacon who made the pulpit on the orders of the priest Guitbertus. The inscription on the beam at Siponto refers to Acceptus (dmitte crimina accepto) and gives the date 1039; the lectern at Monte Sant’Angelo is dated 1041, and the inscription on one of the beams identifies Acceptus as sculptor ([sc]ulptor et acceptus bulgo). The workshop evidently included more than one sculptor, since another beam at Siponto is signed david magister. Fragments of choir screens at Monte Sant’Angelo and Siponto, and the lion support and crossbeam of a throne at Siponto, indicate that the Acceptus workshop made several kinds of liturgical furniture....

Article

French, 11th century, male.

Active in Le Puy-en-Velay (Haute-Loire).

Sculptor.

Aldebertus was the son of Gunsmarus de Maximiaco and Marie. He was Prior of St-Romain-le-Puy (Loire) in 1017, and a pupil of the masters who built the abbey church of St-Martin d'Ainay in Lyons. He is supposed to have built the church of St-Romain-le-Puy....

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time.

Astrology developed into a scientific branch of learning in ancient Greece, but because of the opposition of the Church Fathers it was transmitted to early medieval Europe in only fragmentary form in technically unsophisticated textbooks and popular divinatory genres. Literary and scientific texts provided more general ideas about the nature and attributes of the planets which were influential on later iconography. The first significant astrological images appear in 11th-century illustrated astronomical texts (e.g. London, BL, Cotton MS. Tiberius BV), which were acquired and produced by monasteries to aid with time-keeping and the construction of the Christian calendar....

Article

Italian, 11th century, male.

Active in Pisa.

Sculptor. Statues.

Article

In the 20th century, discussion of the relationship between Byzantine art and the art of the Latin West evolved in tandem with scholarship on Byzantine art itself. Identified as the religious imagery and visual and material culture of the Greek Orthodox Empire based at Constantinople between ad 330 and 1453, studies of Byzantine art often encompassed Post-Byzantine art and that of culturally allied states such as Armenian Cilicia, Macedonia, and portions of Italy. As such fields as Palaiologan family manuscripts and wall paintings, Armenian manuscripts, and Crusader manuscripts and icons emerged, scholars identified new intersections between Western medieval and Byzantine art. Subtle comparisons emerged with the recognition that Byzantine art was not static but changed over time in style and meaning, although most analyses identified Byzantine art as an accessible reservoir of the naturalistic, classicizing styles of antiquity. Scholars considering the 7th-century frescoes at S Maria Antiqua and mosaics at S Maria in Cosmedin, both in Rome, and the 8th-century frescoes at Castelseprio and Carolingian manuscripts such as the Coronation Gospels of Charlemagne (Vienna, Schatzkam. SCHK XIII) used formal comparisons with works such as pre-iconoclastic icons at St Catherine’s Monastery on Sinai, along with the history of Byzantine iconoclasm, to argue for the presence of Greek painters in the West. Similarly, Ottonian and Romanesque painting and luxury arts, such as ivories, provided examples of the appropriation of Byzantine imperial imagery. Yet the study of works such as the great 12th-century ...

Article

John Williams

Sardonyx cup with gold mounts (h. 184 mm, diam. 173 mm; León, Mus.–Bib. Real Colegiata S Isidoro), given by Urraca (c. 1032–1101), the eldest daughter of Ferdinand I, King of Castile-León (reg 1035–65), and sister of Alfonso VI, King of Castile-León (reg 1072–1109), to S Isidoro, León. At Ferdinand’s death, Urraca and her sister Elvira received dominion over the monasteries of the realm for as long as they remained unwed. A chronicle written a decade or so after Urraca’s death goes out of its way to acknowledge her role as donor: ‘All of her life she [Urraca] followed her desire to adorn sacred altars and the vestments of the clergy with gold, silver, and precious stones’.

The high technical level of her gifts may be measured by the chalice. An inscription in beaded gold letters above the foot, in nomine d[omi]ni vrraca fredina[n]di, marks the chalice as the gift of Urraca. The cup and foot of the chalice are made of sardonyx, in shapes consistent with an antique origin, and are joined together by gold mounts to form a Christian liturgical chalice. The cup was lined with gold and has a gold rim richly adorned with pearls, a crystal, and gems held in oval and rectangular settings. An extraordinary addition to this frieze of gems is a white glass paste masculine head recalling the medieval practice of incorporating antique cameos in Christian metalwork. It clearly is not antique, however, and although its long nose and pointed chin seem foreign to the 11th century, the hair on the figure of Ferdinand I on the silver Arca (reliquary) at S Isidoro (...

Article

Enkai  

Japanese, 11th century, male.

Active during the first half of the 11th century.

Sculptor.

Enkai was a Buddhist monk from Mount Shigi near Nara. He was one of the first ­sculptors to use the yosegi (joined-wood) style of carving, whereby monumental sculp­- tures were made from several different blocks of wood that had been carved separately and then put together. Until that time, these large wooden figures had been carved using the ichiboku technique, meaning out of a single block of wood. Enkai’s famous seated statue of ...

Article

Danielle B. Joyner

From the time John Cassian established the first female foundation in Marseille in ad 410, monastic women lived in varying states of enclosure and were surrounded by diverse images and objects that contributed to their devotion, education and livelihood. The first rule for women, written in 512 by St Caesarius of Arles, emphasized their strict separation from men and the world, as did the Periculoso, a directive issued by Pope Boniface VIII (reg 1294–1303) in 1298. Various architectural solutions developed throughout the Middle Ages to reconcile the necessities of enclosure with the access required by male clerics to celebrate Mass and provide pastoral care. Nuns’ choirs, where the women would gather for their daily prayers, were often constructed as discreet spaces in the church, which allowed women to hear or see the Mass without interacting with the cleric, as in the 10th-century choir in the eastern transept gallery at St Cyriakus in Gernrode, Germany. In some Cistercian examples, the nuns’ choir appeared at the west end of the nave. Dominican and Franciscan architecture was largely varied. Double monasteries, which housed men and women, also required careful construction. A 7th-century text describing the church of St Brigida in ...

Article

Stephen T. Driscoll

Scottish royal centre in Perthshire, which reached its zenith in the late Pictish period (8th–9th centuries ad) and is the source of an assemblage of high quality ecclesiastical sculpture. Occupying the fertile heart of Strathearn, Forteviot has been more or less in continuous use as a ceremonial centre since the 3rd millennium bc and is the focus of élite burials from the Early Bronze Age (c. 1900 bc) through to the Pictish era. Cinead mac Alpín (Kenneth mac Alpine), the king traditionally identified with the foundation of the Gaelic kingdom of the Scots, died at the palacium (palace) of Forteviot in ad 858. It was eclipsed as a royal centre by Scone in ad 906, but remained a significant royal estate until the 13th century.

The only surviving fabric of the palace is a unique monolithic arch, presumably a chancel arch, carved with three moustached Picts in classical dress flanking a crucifix (now in the Royal Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh). Fragments of at least four additional sandstone crosses indicate the presence of a major church, perhaps a monastery. The celebrated Dupplin Cross (now in Dunning Church) originally overlooked Forteviot from the north. This monolithic, free-standing cross (2.5 m tall) bears a Latin inscription naming Constantine son of Fergus, King of the Picts (...

Article

Flemish School, 11th century, male.

Active in Liègec.1081.

Sculptor, illuminator.

This artist was a monk at the abbey of St-Hubert in the Ardennes.

Article

Thomas W. Lyman

[Bernard Gilduin]

(fl 1096).

French sculptor. An inscription around the edge of the marble altar table consecrated on 16 May 1096 by Urban II at St Sernin, Toulouse, concludes bernardus gelduinus me fecit (see Toulouse, §2, (i), (b)). It has been thought to refer to a sculptor who was not only involved in the execution of the altar table but also in all seven large relief slabs now set in the ambulatory hemicycle wall and of a number of capitals elsewhere in the Romanesque basilica. These include three capitals in the same style reused on the Porte Miègeville on the south side of the nave, which, with other displaced elements, probably belonged to the programme for the sanctuary, which was incomplete at the consecration of 1096. Six limestone capitals in the upper part of the transept also attest to the activity at that time of the same marble-carvers. An impost rendered in a similar style in the tribune arcade of the north transept shows the presentation of a square object by two men wearing tunics. It appears to represent the offering of the altar by members of the lay confraternity referred to in the inscription, to which Gelduinus may have belonged. The object held by the draped figures has also been compared to the memorial cartouche on ancient sarcophagi, however, and may have a funerary connotation....

Article

Giso  

Italian, 11th century, male.

Sculptor (wood).

This artist was also an priest at the cathedral of Camerino and is known from a wooden crucifix he made for this church.

Article

French, 10th – 11th century, male.

Born 10th century, in Vercelli, into a Swedish family; died 1031, in Fécamp.

Sculptor, architect.

Guillaume was the abbot of Ste-Bénigne, Dijon. In 1001 Guillaume drew the plans of the Ste-Bénigne church, of which now only the porch exists. He had many pupils and built, either with or without their help, the churches of Vézeley, Vermenton, Avallon, and the Benedictine church of Nantua....

Article

French, 11th century, male.

Born in Le Puy-en-Velay (Haute-Loire).

Sculptor, architect.

This artist was a monk in the abbey of La Chaise-Dieu. Among his works in Périgueux Cathedral is Tomb of St Front (1081), which is considered a masterpiece. Guinamand was under the protection of Canon Étienne Ithier or Ithérius....

Article

Huesca  

Daniel Rico

Spanish provincial capital, to the north of Saragossa in Aragón. Known in pre-Roman Iberia as Bolskan and as Osca under the Romans, it was the seat of the Quintus Sertorius government, a municipium (free town) since the time of Augustus and a bishopric under the Visigoths. During the period of Muslim domination from the 8th to the 11th centuries, the town, known as Wasqa, became a defensive settlement with a city wall stretching for more than 1.8 km, of which some sections still remain. Although the city was recovered by the Christians in 1096 and the episcopal see restored the following year, the architectural transformation of Huesca was not immediate. During the 12th century only two edifices of any real importance were constructed. One of these was the Benedictine monastery of S Pedro el Viejo, of which three Romanesque structures have survived: the church—a simple construction which nevertheless has two interesting tympana carved by sculptors from Jaca; a small chapel, possibly inherited from the Mozarab community in the 11th century, which was used as the Chapter House and then as a funeral chapel; and a cloister decorated around ...

Article

In  

Samuel C. Morse

Major school of Japanese Buddhist sculpture of the late Heian (ad 794–1185) and early Kamakura (1185–1333) periods (see Japan, §V, 3, (iii)). The school took its name from Injō (d 1108), who was the chief disciple of Kakujō (d 1077), son of Jōchō, who had developed a gentle, elegant style of wood sculpture suited to the refined tastes of the mid-Heian aristocracy of the capital (modern Kyoto). Art historians generally consider Kakujō to have been the first-generation master of the school, which specialized in producing for their patrons close formal replicas of Jōchō’s imagery. There were two workshops (bussho) of the In school in Kyoto: the Shichijō–Ōmiya workshop, established by Injō, and the Rokujō–Madenokōji workshop, set up in the mid-12th century. Initially in competition with the other main exponent of Jōchō’s style, the En school, the In was pre-eminent in the second half of the 12th century. After this, the work of the school became increasingly mannered and began to decline in popularity. In the early Kamakura period it was eclipsed by the dynamic realism of the ...

Article

Injo  

Japanese, 11th century, male.

Died 1108.

Sculptor.

Injo, a Buddhist sculptor, is said to be the son of Kakujo or Chosei and the grandson of Jocho, a great sculptor who died in 1057. He was therefore part of an important line of artists who formed one of the two main currents of Buddhist art at the beginning of the Heian period. He is considered the founder of the Shichijo Omiya studio in Kyoto, where he continued to work, with his numerous assistants, in the style of Jocho. It was probably for this reason that he received the honorary title of ...

Article

Jean  

10th – 11th century, male.

Born between 960 and 970, in Italy or in Greece; died 1016, in Liège.

Painter, sculptor, architect. Religious subjects. Church decoration.

Jean was employed by the emperor Otto III in 980 and 1002. He was rewarded for work on the chapel of Charlemagne by the gift of a bishopric in Italy. He returned to Germany, then went to Liège where he became a friend of the bishop Baldéric II, who encouraged him to decorate the choir of St James' Abbey. He built the church of St Andrew in Liège. This may be the same man as the painter Johannes who was working at this period at Nepi....

Article

Jocho  

Japanese, 11th century, male.

Active in Kyoto.

Died 1057.

Sculptor.

At the end of the 9th century Japan was distancing itself from the influences of the Chinese Tang dynasty (618-906) and creating its own national art ( wa-yo).

Tradition places the sculptor Jocho at the origin of profound changes which would transform the style of sculpture and the social status of the artist. He can be traced back to ...

Article

Jōchō  

Samuel C. Morse

(b Heian [now Kyoto], ?late 10th century; d 1057).

Japanese sculptor. He perfected the joined woodblock technique (yosegi zukuri), whereby sections of wood were hollowed, carved and assembled (see Japan §V 1., (ii), (b)). This facilitated the rapid, large-scale production of monumental images in the atelier and encouraged the development of the workshop (bussho) system. Together with his father, Kōjō (fl 990–1020), Jōchō developed a restrained style of Buddhist imagery that reflected the aesthetic ideals of their aristocratic patrons. Jōchō’s first commission, as his father’s assistant, was for the nine statues of Amida (Skt Amitābha; Buddha of the Western Paradise), completed in 1020 (destr.), for the Nine Amida Hall at the Hōjōji in Kyoto, the private monastery of the regent Fujiwara no Michinaga (966–1027). Michinaga then entrusted Jōchō with the production of statuary for the other halls of the temple. In recognition of Jōchō’s work, Michinaga took the unprecedented step of conferring on him the honorary monastic title of ...