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Monica McTighe

American photography foundation and publisher. Aperture magazine was founded in San Francisco in 1952 by American photographers Ansel Adams, Dorothea Lange, Barbara Morgan, Minor White, Ernest Louie, Melton Ferris, and Dody Warren, with writer–curators Beaumont Newhall and Nancy Newhall. They intended the organization to serve as a forum for discussing photography, to exhibit photographers’ work, and to raise the profile of art photography in the United States.

The journal Aperture, which began publication in 1952, dedicated itself to the practice of photography as a fine art and thus distinguished itself from popular and commercial photographic periodicals. In this way the journal emulated Alfred Stieglitz’s Camera Work (1903–17). Photographer Minor White was the journal’s first editor and, under his tenure, it became concerned with the capacity of photography to deal with spirituality and profound human experiences. The first issue included the work of Dorothea Lange, Ansel Adams, and French photographer Lisette Model. All contributors were urged to write about their own work. In ...

Article

British, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in the UK.

Born 1958, in Georgetown, Guyana.

Video artist, film maker, photographer, journalist, broadcaster. Scratch videos.

George Barber has a BA from St Martin’s School of Art in London (1980) and an MA from the Slade School of Art in London (...

Article

American, 20th–21st century, male.

Born 1973, in Hong Kong.

Video artist, multi-media artist, activist, and publisher. Artists’ books

Paul Chan spent his early childhood in Hong Kong but immigrated to Omaha, Nebraska, in his youth. He began his BFA in video and digital arts at the Art Institute of Chicago in ...

Article

Israeli, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1951.

Photographer. Multimedia.

A theorist and art and philosophy critic, he is also an editor and artist.

He takes part in group exhibitions, notably Implicit Connections in 1997 at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris.

Article

Jonathan Lipkin

The process of creating, storing, manipulating, and displaying photographic images through electronic devices such as digital cameras, computers, and printers. By the late 20th century digital technology had largely replaced traditional chemical photographic processes. That digital photographs are easier to produce, manipulate, and distribute than their analogue predecessors has led to significant changes to vernacular, artistic, and commercial photographic practices. The boundaries of what constitutes Photography—once defined quite clearly through its optical and chemical nature—have also expanded, to the point where many question whether digital photography is an incremental step in the evolution of the medium, or a radical leap into an entirely new form of image production.

While a traditional photograph is an image embodied in physical form, a digital photograph exists as a computer file that describes the image. Most digital photographs today are composed of bitmaps, grids filled with numbers that represent the colour and tonal characteristics of each square, which is called a pixel. Most commonly, each pixel is described by three numbers that can range from 0 to 255 (or 2...

Article

John-Paul Stonard

[Höllinger, Waltraud]

(b Linz, 1940).

Austrian film maker, video artist, photographer and performance artist. After studies in Linz and Vienna (1955–64) and work as a script girl, film editor and film extra (1965–8), she signalled her decision to follow a career as an artist by changing her name to Valie Export (a combination of the abbreviated form of her forename and a reference to a popular brand of cheap Austrian cigarettes, ‘Austria Export’). The provocative and politically engaged stance she then developed in her work constituted a relentless exploration of feminist issues and a wish for direct social change as a result of her activities as an artist. In one of her best-known earlier works, Genital Panic (1969), originally an impromptu performance in a Munich cinema, she confronted audience members wearing trousers exposing her genitals. This work was later made into a photographic poster depicting the artist wearing the same confrontational apparel, sporting a wild hair-do and holding a gun. Agitational erotic interaction had also featured in a well-known street performance of the same year, ...

Article

South African, 21st century, male.

Born 29 October 1976, in Johannesburg.

Photojournalist, documentary photographer. Portraiture, landscape, social groups.

Pieter Hugo worked in the film industry until 1999, when he started freelancing as an editorial photographer. After publishing in Colors, an influential photo magazine, Hugo in ...

Article

American, 20th–21st century, female.

Born 1950, in Prague.

Active in Rosendale (New York).

Printmaker, photographer, draughtsman, paper maker. Installation art, artists’ books.

Women’s Studio Workshop.

Tatana Kellner was born in Prague and grew up in communist Czechoslovakia as the daughter of Holocaust survivors. After the Soviet invasion in ...

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born 15 April 1947, in Lexington (Kentucky).

Artist, printmaker, writer, teacher, photographer. Artists’ books

Susan King was born and grew up in Kentucky, where she graduated from the University of Kentucky with a BA in art. After college she worked for Byron Temple Pottery in Lambertville, New Jersey. From there she moved to Las Cruces, New Mexico and obtained an MA at New Mexico State University. After hearing Judy Chicago speak at her school, she travelled to Los Angeles to be part of the experimental Feminist Studio Workshop at the Woman’s Building, a public centre for women’s culture. King stayed in Los Angeles and began making artists’ books at the Women’s Graphic Center. She founded Paradise Press and opened her own studio in West L.A. King returned to Kentucky in ...

Article

American, 20th–21st century, female.

Born 1955, in Germany.

Active in England and Brittany, France.

Installation artist, photographer, printmaker, writer, editor, educator. Artists’ books, artists’ multiples.

Sharon Kivland studied at Liverpool School of Art and at the London College of Printing. Later she took a masters degree at Goldsmith’s College, London (...

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 1945, in Wasco (California), United States.

Installation, video, performance, public art, photography, publishing.

Suzanne Lacy is a Los Angeles–based artist whose work addresses topics such as rape, violence, aging, poverty, racism, and issues of gender and youth culture. She focuses on social practise, creating installations, videos, and unconventional performances that often include collaborations with other artists and members of local communities. Lacy’s larger actions include media-outreach programmes and public-policy debates, effectively blurring the line between art and activism. Lacy is the chair of the Public Practices program at Otis College of Art and Design in Los Angeles. She is also the cofounder of the Women’s Building, a centre of study and activism for women artists that developed from the Feminist Studio Workshop established by Judy Chicago, Arlene Raven, and Sheila Lavrant de Bretteville in ...

Article

American, 20th–21st century, female.

Born 31 August 1913, in Brooklyn, New York; died 29 March 2009, in New York, New York.

Photographer, filmmaker and film editor. Portraits, documentary photography.

While working for a commercial portrait photographer in the Bronx in 1931, Levitt familiarized herself with documentary photography through books and exhibitions. Inspired by the work of Henri Cartier-Bresson, she bought a Leica, which enabled her to photograph inconspicuously on the streets of New York. She befriended Walker Evans and helped him print work included in his ...

Article

American, 20th–21st century, female.

Born 20 July 1940, in Philadelphia; died 20 June 2015, in New York.

Photographer, photojournalist.

Raised in the suburbs of Philadelphia, Mary Ellen Mark earned her BFA in painting and art history from the University of Pennsylvania in 1962. Two years later, she earned her master’s in photojournalism at that institution’s Annenberg School of Communication, where she discovered her ardent passion for photography. From ...

Article

Martha Schwendener

Annual French art photography fair created in 1997 by the Dutch publisher Rik Gadella. Paris Photo is mounted each year in early November in the Carrousel du Louvre, an underground commercial space between the Musée du Louvre and the Place du Carrousel, lit partially by the inverted pyramid skylight designed by Pei Cobb Freed & Partners. Compared to other large art photography fairs, like the Association of International Photographic Art Dealers in New York or Fotofest in Houston, TX, Paris Photo has featured more contemporary than vintage photography. Starting in 1999, Paris Photo featured different genres of art photography: fashion in 1999 and corporate collections in 2000. Subsequently, it showcased photography from different countries, starting with Germany and later including the Netherlands, Spain, Mexico, Japan, and Italy. The fair’s organizers also started a more ambitious programme of hiring curators to organize the national exhibitions. Mariko Takeuchi, a photography critic, scholar, and researcher, organized the ...

Article

American, 20th–21st century, male.

Born 2 May 1938, in Tipton (Indiana).

Active in Rochester (New York).

Bookmaker, photographer, printmaker, teacher. Artists’ books.

Keith Smith received his BAE degree from the School of the Art Institute of Chicago in 1967, studying printmaking and photography, and an MS in photography from the Illinois Institute of Technology in ...

Article

Kate Palmer-Albers

(b Minneapolis, MN, 1969).

American photographer, publisher, and book artist. Soth graduated from Sarah Lawrence College in Bronxville, NY, where he studied painting and took classes with photographer Joel Sternfeld. He came to prominence in 2004 with Sleeping by the Mississippi, which was included in that year’s Whitney Biennial. That project, shot in large-format colour on road trips along the Mississippi River, established many of the ongoing themes of his major bodies of work, such as freedom, isolation, dreams, and desire. Soth’s career is characterized by a restless visual curiosity that manifests in multiple aesthetic forms: he worked fluidly among photographic formats, including digital and online platforms, and sought out experimental modes of engagement with his audiences. In 2004 he was nominated for the esteemed photojournalism collective Magnum, and became a full member in 2008.

In many of his larger projects, such as Niagara (2006), Broken Manual (2010), and Songbook...

Article

American, 20th–21st century, female.

Born 1954, in Concord (New Hampshire).

Active in Ireland from 1997.

Artist, writer, photographer, editor, printmaker, bookmaker. Artists’ books.

Erica Van Horn studied fine arts at California State University, Hayward under the tutelage of printmaker Misch Kohn. She received an MFA in printmaking from the School of the Art Institute of Chicago in ...