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Article

Dianne Timmerman and Frank van den Hoek

(b Amsterdam, Feb 1, 1891; d Amsterdam, May 5, 1951).

Dutch architect and writer. He studied civil engineering at the Technische Hogeschool, Delft, graduating in 1916. For a period he was editor of the architectural periodical Bouwkundig Weekblad, his articles revealing an admiration for Le Corbusier and Ernst May, particularly the latter’s efficient manner of working. He left the journal in 1924 because of its insufficient coverage of Functionalism. Between 1919 and 1926 he worked for the Department of Public Works in Amsterdam, mainly in the idiom of the Amsterdam school, for example a telephone exchange (1923) in East Amsterdam. His later projects, for example the houses (1927–8) in Aalsmeerderstraat and Sassenheimstraat, Amsterdam, are simpler, more rigid and make more use of glass. In 1928 Boeken joined the Amsterdam Functionalists of Architectengroep de 8 8, but he left before 1931. As a member of the main Dutch architectural society, Architectura et Amicitia, he supported Arthur Staal, who tried to push the society in the direction of Functionalism. In ...

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born 14 June 1904, in New York City; died 27 August 1971, in Darien, Connecticut.

Photographer, photojournalist. Social documentary, advertisements, landscapes, genre scenes.

Modernism.

Margaret Bourke-White received her first training in photography at the Clarence White School of Photography in 1922, while a student at Columbia University. Bourke-White was intrigued by the American industrial landscape, and her first important industrial series featured the Otis Steel Mills near Cleveland. At this time Bourke-White developed her hallmark style, using the cinema trick of magnesium flares to flood the dark factory floor with bright light. Her commercial images similarly used multiple light sources and crisp focus to highlight repeated forms and shapes....

Article

French, 20th century, female.

Born 19 December 1912, in Berlin; died 31 March 2000, in Paris.

Photographer, photojournalist, writer. Portraits.

Modernism.

Among Gisèle Freund’s earliest photographs are images documenting the rise of the Nazi Party in Germany. Freund’s Jewish heritage and socialist politics forced her to flee Germany for Paris in ...

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born 1875, in Nebraska; died 1944.

Illustrator.

Art Nouveau.

Rose O'Neill was married to the author Leon Wilson, who was also the editor of Puck. After her divorce she settled in Missouri. She contributed to various magazines, including: Life, Collier's, New York Journal, Ladies' Home, Woman's Home Companion...

Article

Radomíra Sedláková

(b Prague, March 15, 1884; d Prague, Nov 3, 1971).

Czech architect, theorist, historian, editor and teacher. He graduated in architecture (1912) from the Czech Technical University, Prague, where he studied under Josef Schulz and Jan Koula (1855–1919). In 1921 he became President of the Architects’ Club and from 1923 he was responsible for publishing Stavba, which became one of the leading European avant-garde journals in support of the new Functionalist architecture. Starý was also the author of the manifesto ‘The New architecture’, in which he underlined its main objectives; these included the importance of construction instead of decoration in line with principles of science and modern design. In 1934 Starý became President of the Block of Progressive Architectural Groups (BAPS) and in 1938 he became editor-in-chief of Architektura, which resulted from the merging of the monthly architectural journals published within BAPS. Starý’s own architectural work developed from a series of Functionalist family houses, including three built at the Werkbund Exhibition (...

Article

American, 19th–20th century, male.

Born 1 January 1864, in Hoboken, New Jersey; died 13 July 1946, in New York City.

Photographer, writer, editor, gallery owner, collector. Cityscapes, landscapes, portraits.

Pictorialism, Modernism. The Linked Ring, Photo-Secession

Alfred Stieglitz was the eldest of six children and attended New York schools before moving to Germany in 1881. There Stieglitz studied photography with photo-chemist Hermann Vogel beginning in 1883. Returning to New York in 1890, Stieglitz joined the Society of Amateur Photographers and became increasingly involved with Pictorialism. Often characterized by a soft-focus, painterly quality, the Pictorialist aesthetic appears in his pictures from this period, such as ...