Swiss family of collectors of German origin. Johannes Amerbach (b ?Amorbach, c. 1450; d Basle, Dec 25, 1513) gained his MA at the Sorbonne, Paris, and trained as a printer in Nuremberg and Venice. In 1482 he settled in Basle, where in 1484 he founded his own print shop and publishing house. He was in close contact with Albrecht Dürer during the latter’s stay in Basle (1491–2). Apart from works of art for personal use, for example ornamental daggers, he probably owned graphic and print blocks for woodcut illustrations by Dürer. Johannes’s son, Bonifacius Amerbach (b Basle, 11 Oct 1495; d Basle, 24 April 1562), a lawyer, professor at the University of Basle and syndic of the Basle council, was the heir and executor of Erasmus and owned paintings by the Holbein family and important gold and silver pieces, for example the well-known ‘...
Jetty E. van der Sterre
(fl Basle, 1485; d 1524).
German engraver and printer. He established himself in Basle in 1485 but subsequently worked as a printer in Strasbourg (1487, 1488), Pforzheim (1500–10), Tübingen (1511–17) and Hagenau (1516–22). Although a few of his prints bear dates between 1501 and 1506, stylistically his work belongs to the 15th-century tradition....
French, 15th – 16th century, male.
Active in Lyons between 1490 and 1510.
Engraver (wood), printer, print publisher.
German, 15th century, male.
Born c. 1435; died 1504.
Painter, miniaturist, illuminator, writer, printer. Religious subjects.
School of Alsace.
Hans Baemler's name appears for the first time in 1453. He established himself in Augsburg as a printer. His name appears on two miniatures, a Crucifixion...
[Baemler, Johann; Bemler, Hans]
German illuminator and printer . He is listed in the Augsburg tax rolls from 1453 as a scribe and from 1477 as a printer. Bämler belonged to the guild of painters, glassmakers, woodcut-makers and goldbeaters, eventually achieving the rank of Zwollfer (director). Examples of his youthful work are two signed miniatures dated 1457 (New York, Pierpont Morgan Lib., MS. M.45) and a signed historiated initial on a detached Antiphonal leaf (Philadelphia, PA, Free Lib., Lewis M 67:3). Between 1466 and 1468 he rubricated and decorated with calligraphic and painted ornament four books printed in Strasbourg: a Latin Bible (Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bib., Bibel-S.2°155), a copy of Thomas Aquinas’s Summa theologica (Munich, Bayer Staatsbib., 2° Inc. s.a.1146a) and two copies of St Augustine’s City of God (Chantilly, Mus. Condé, XXII.D.11, and Manchester, John Rylands U. Lib., no. 3218, Inc. 3A8).
Bämler’s knowledge of printing was probably acquired in Augsburg, in the shop of ...
(b Bergamo, c. 1458; fl Venice, 1543).
Italian printer and publisher of books and prints. He settled in Venice c. 1480 and in 1483 was running a bookshop at the sign of St Jerome in the Merceria and published the Supplementum chronicarum of Jacobus Philippus Foresti (Bergomensis; 1434–1520). Between then and 1543, the year of the publication of Girolamo Savonarola’s Trattato dell’amor di Gesù, he published (alone or with other publishers) over 100 texts of Classical and contemporary authors, treatises on law and medicine, as well as several books of a religious nature, mostly in Latin. Among the most famous illustrated works are those of Dante Alighieri (1491) and Ovid (1493–4). After c. 1500 Benalio’s publishing activity declined (c. 40 post-1500 publications are known), perhaps pushed into second place by his new interest, the publication and marketing of prints. For this purpose he opened a branch at Padua, entrusting its management to a relative, ...
(fl 1488; d Padua, Feb 1530).
Italian illuminator, printmaker and writer. He is first mentioned in Padua as an illuminator in 1488. He has been identified as the Benedetto Padovano who signed the Digestum novum (
(b Kent, ?1427; d London, 1492).
English printer, publisher, translator, and merchant. In 1437–8 he entered the London Mercers’ Company, apprenticed to wool merchant Robert Large after whose death (1441) he moved to Bruges, where he established a position of considerable prestige in the English trading community; in 1462 he became governor of the settlement of English merchants in Bruges known as the English Nation and subsequently entered the service of Margaret of York, Duchess of Burgundy. Several documents refer to Caxton’s diplomatic activities. In 1469 he began a translation of Raoul Le Fèvres’s Recueil des histoires de Troye, which he completed in 1471 in Cologne, where he also learnt the trade and art of printing; however, his first books were probably printed in Bruges, to which he returned probably in early 1473. On his return to England he set up the first printing press in the country in the precincts of Westminster Abbey. His earliest dated London work is an ecclesiastical indulgence dated ...
E. S. Welch
(fl Milan, 1430–6).
Italian painter and illuminator. He was one of a large family of painters and illuminators working in Milan in the 15th century. He appears frequently in the registers of the building works of the city’s cathedral and as a creditor of the influential Borromeo family. First recorded in 1430 as the painter of two altarpieces for the cathedral, he is mentioned again in 1433 and 1444 for the gilding of sculpture and in 1442, 1446 and 1448 for further paintings. None of these works survives.
In 1445 and 1446 Giovanni was paid by Vitaliano Borromeo for the illumination of family imprese. However, Cipriani has suggested that these payments were for a group of decorated diplomas (Milan, Trivulziana) granted to the Borromeo family in 1445, and on this basis says that the designs may be by the much better-known Master of the Vitae Imperatorum. A miniature of Filippo Maria Visconti in Galessio da Correggio’s ...
Robert A. Koch
Sandra L. Hindman
(b Venice, c. 1364; d Poissy, nr Paris, ?c. 1430).
Italian writer and publisher, active in France.
At the age of four Christine went with her father, Tommaso di Benvenuto da Pizzano (whose name reflects the origin of his family in the small town of Pizzano in the foothills of Bologna), to Paris, where he served as physician and astrologer to Charles V. In 1379 Christine married a French nobleman, Etienne Castel, who became a royal notary and secretary. She bore him three children before his death in 1389. Since her father had also died between 1384 and 1389, Christine was forced to support both herself and her family. Many women in her situation might have taken religious vows or remarried, but Christine determined to earn her living through her skills as a writer.
Initially she wrote love poetry, which she gathered together at the end of the 1390s in a volume called Cent balades. Although she continued occasionally to write love poetry, such as the ...
(b Hammelburg, Franconia, c. 1460; d Basle, Oct 27, 1527).
German humanist printer. He moved to Basle in 1491 and trained as a printer and scholarly editor in the Amerbach family workshop. After the death of Johannes Amerbach in 1513, Froben established himself as an independent publisher with a particular interest in the printing of Biblical and patristic works (notably a nine-volume edition of St Jerome), and engaged Hans Holbein the younger (see Holbein family §(3)) and Urs Graf to design decorative initials and borders for his books; Holbein also painted his portrait (of which a copy is in Windsor Castle). Froben became a close friend of Desiderius Erasmus, who lived in Froben’s house, and was the publisher of Erasmus’s Greek New Testament (the first to be published). Froben also published tracts by Luther, but when Luther and Erasmus clashed over the doctrine of grace, Froben supported Erasmus. After Froben’s death the publishing house was managed by his descendants until ...
(b Mainz, c. 1400; d Paris, Oct 30, 1466).
German printer. He was a lawyer who in 1450 lent Johann Gutenberg 800 guilders to finance the publication of the 42-line Bible. He subsequently invested another 800 guilders and became Gutenberg’s partner. When Gutenberg became bankrupt in 1455, Fust assumed control of the press together with his son-in-law Peter Schöffer. On ...
(b Paris, 1480; d Paris, 1561).
French typefounder. Garamond worked as a typefounder for several Parisian printers and designed the roman typeface now known as typi regii and the Greek type (now known as grecs du roi) used by Robert Estienne in an edition of Eusebius (1544) commissioned by Valois, House of family §(14)...
(b Forlì; fl c. Venice, 1480–1528).
Italian publisher, printer and woodcutter. He went to Venice c. 1480, where, with his brother Giovanni de’ Gregoriis, he set up a press that produced many of the most admired illustrated books of the time (e.g. Boccaccio’s Decameron, 1492; for illustration see Boccaccio, Giovanni). From 1505 to 1528 he ran the press on his own. In 1517 he published a five-block edition of Titian’s Triumph of Christ (e.g. Bassano del Grappa, Mus. Civ.; and see 1976–7 exh. cat., no. 2) and two other woodcuts designed by Titian: the Virgin and Child with SS John the Baptist and Gregory the Great (see 1976–7 exh. cat., no. 13), which also bears the monogram of Lucantonio degli Uberti, and a Martyrdom of St Cecilia, which is signed and dated.F. Mauroner: Le incisioni di Tiziano (Venice, 1943/R 1982)Tiziano e la silografia veneziana del cinquecento (exh. cat., ed. M. Muraro and ...
(b Mainz, c. 1394–99; d Mainz, 1468).
German printer. Trained as a goldsmith, he left Mainz for Strasbourg c. 1428 as a political exile. A lawsuit of 1439 indicates that while in Strasbourg he began experimenting with printing techniques. Gutenberg was back in Mainz on 17 October 1448 and by 1450 had begun a commercial printing venture employing his inventions of movable metal type cast in separate letters and a type-casting machine (see Printing). He was financed by a lawyer, Johannes Fust (d 1466), who also became his partner. Gutenberg’s principal developments were the use of individual letters in raised type, which were manufactured in metal instead of wood, thus increasing the durability and clarity of the printed image, and the employment of a pressure press in the printing process. His 42-line Bible, set up during 1452–3, was published before 24 August 1456. It was a lectern book, in two volumes, comprising 1286 pages and was the first full-length ...
Robert A. Koch
German family of etchers. In 1497 (1) Daniel Hopfer married Justina Grimm (d between 1527 and 1530), sister of the publisher and humanist Sigismund Grimm(fl 1502–30; d by 1532). Daniel’s sons Hieronymus Hopfer(fl 1520; d before 1550) and Lambert Hopfer(fl 1520–30) worked with him. Daniel produced more than 130 prints of various subjects for the popular market, Hieronymus 77 and Lambert 34. They placed their initials somewhere within the design on almost all of their prints (
In their later years Hieronymus and Lambert, who decorated armour as well as making prints, moved to Nuremberg, taking the family’s stock of plates and prints with them. In the 17th century a print dealer, ...
Dutch, 15th century, male.
Active in Delftc.1477.
(b Sommevoire, Marne, c. 1420; d Venice, after Sept 7, 1480).
French printer and publisher. Having served his apprenticeship at the Royal Mint in Paris, he was promoted to the position of Master of the Mint at Tours. He may have been sent to Mainz in 1458 by Charles VII, King of France, to learn printing. By 1470 he was an established publisher in Venice, producing four editions in that year including Cicero’s Epistolae ad atticum and Rhetorica novus et vetus. In 1471 he printed eighteen editions and in 1472 ten. In 1473 he formed an association with Jacques Le Rouge of Chablis, who started to print using Jenson’s type in late 1473. In 1474 he fought off strong German competition by entering into partnership with two German entrepreneurs, Johannes Rauchfas and Peter Ugelheimer, both of Frankfurt am Main. They formed the company ‘Nicolaus Jenson et socii’, which probably lasted until 1480. Of the 98 books attributed to Jenson, 29 are religious, 24 are Classical texts and at least 10 are on medical subjects. He achieved a pre-eminent position in Venetian publishing. In ...
(b Nuremberg, fl 1472; d Nuremberg, Oct 3, 1513).
German publisher. Koberger introduced printing to Nuremberg in 1470 and sold his books through his 16 shops and his network of agents throughout Europe. He published more than 200 folio incunabula, many of which were lavishly illustrated with woodcuts, including Hartmann Schedel’s Nuremberg Chronicle. On his death the business passed to his heirs who went bankrupt in ...