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Article

(Gruenwald, Alfred Emanuel Ferdinand]

(b Stettin, Pomerania [now Szczecin, Poland], Oct 9, 1892; d nr Chamonix, France, 17 or Aug 18, 1927).

German collagist, draughtsman, writer and publisher. Although he came from an upper middle-class family, after serving as a volunteer in World War I he became a pacifist and a supporter of democratic socialism on Soviet lines. In 1918 he began a political career as a committee member of the mid-Rhine district of the Independent Social-Democratic Party, a Marxist party that had split from the Social-Democratic Party of Germany. The short-lived journal he edited, Der Ventilator, which published six issues in Cologne in February and March 1919, was a satirical magazine directed against the Social Democrat government in Berlin.

Having discovered the work of de Chirico and come under the influence of Dada, in autumn 1919 Baargeld became an opponent of tradition and convention in art as well, setting himself particularly against Expressionism. In November 1919 he and Max Ernst, who together can be said to have founded the Cologne branch of ...

Article

British, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in the UK.

Born 1958, in Georgetown, Guyana.

Video artist, film maker, photographer, journalist, broadcaster. Scratch videos.

George Barber has a BA from St Martin’s School of Art in London (1980) and an MA from the Slade School of Art in London (...

Article

American, 20th–21st century, male.

Born 1973, in Hong Kong.

Video artist, multi-media artist, activist, and publisher. Artists’ books

Paul Chan spent his early childhood in Hong Kong but immigrated to Omaha, Nebraska, in his youth. He began his BFA in video and digital arts at the Art Institute of Chicago in ...

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1939, in Liège.

Painter, sculptor, video artist, film producer. Comic strips.

Jacques Charlier lives and works in Liège. In 1982 he had La route de l'art published in comic strip form by the publishers Gewad and Moretti in Ghent. He draws together the activities of painting, sculpture, video, films and comic strips in order to deal with one common theme: art and the world of art, highlighting its contradictions and paradoxes. In an exhibition of photographs of reports by the Belgian organisation STP, ...

Article

British, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in London and New York.

Born 1964, in Aylesbury (Buckinghamshire).

Installation artist, writer, curator, publisher.

Conceptual Art.

Liam Gillick studied at the Hertfordshire College of Art (1983-1987) and Goldsmith’s College in London (1984-1987). He was shortlisted for the Turner Prize in ...

Article

German, 20th century, female.

Born 1899, in Cologne; died 1923.

Painter.

Dadaism.

Cologne Dadaist.

Angelika Hörle was the wife of Heinrich Hörle. Her Dadaist drawings and collages were reproduced in the Dada movement's journals, Bulletin D, The Maggot of Shame ( Die Schammade) and ...

Article

American, 20th–21st century, female.

Born 1950, in Prague.

Active in Rosendale (New York).

Printmaker, photographer, draughtsman, paper maker. Installation art, artists’ books.

Women’s Studio Workshop.

Tatana Kellner was born in Prague and grew up in communist Czechoslovakia as the daughter of Holocaust survivors. After the Soviet invasion in ...

Article

American, 20th–21st century, female.

Born 1955, in Germany.

Active in England and Brittany, France.

Installation artist, photographer, printmaker, writer, editor, educator. Artists’ books, artists’ multiples.

Sharon Kivland studied at Liverpool School of Art and at the London College of Printing. Later she took a masters degree at Goldsmith’s College, London (...

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 1945, in Wasco (California), United States.

Installation, video, performance, public art, photography, publishing.

Suzanne Lacy is a Los Angeles–based artist whose work addresses topics such as rape, violence, aging, poverty, racism, and issues of gender and youth culture. She focuses on social practise, creating installations, videos, and unconventional performances that often include collaborations with other artists and members of local communities. Lacy’s larger actions include media-outreach programmes and public-policy debates, effectively blurring the line between art and activism. Lacy is the chair of the Public Practices program at Otis College of Art and Design in Los Angeles. She is also the cofounder of the Women’s Building, a centre of study and activism for women artists that developed from the Feminist Studio Workshop established by Judy Chicago, Arlene Raven, and Sheila Lavrant de Bretteville in ...

Article

Brazilian, 20th century, male.

Born 1957, in Fortaleza; died 1993.

Painter, draughtsman, installation artist.

José Leonilson was influenced by the work of Arthur Bispo do Rosario. His work is a personal account, a kind of private journal bringing together acrylic paintings and drawings on unstretched canvas, embroidery and sewn-on objects but also abstract signs, some with symbolic overtones. His work recounts the experiences, questions and concerns of the artist, who died of AIDS. José Leonilson took part in collective exhibitions. His work was shown at the Nouvelle Biennale, Paris (...

Article

Congolese, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active since 1989 active in France.

Born 19 December 1964, in Pointe Noire.

Painter (mixed media), draughtsman. Scenes with figures, figures.

Gatien Mabounga learned from his father, who was a printer and bookbinder, how to work with leather. In 1984...

Article

Dutch, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1968, in Volkel.

Sculptor of assemblages, installation artist, draughtsman, publisher.

Conceptual Art.

Since 1986 Mark Manders has considered his works to be self-portraits, buildings inhabited by himself or 'self-portrait dwellings'. At exhibitions he first fits out the allocated space, working on all the surfaces, walls and floor. Then, in this 'container-environment', he proceeds to install significant elements from each of his creations; these elements are joined by assemblage, connections or various links. To this majority of pre-existing elements, which he has deliberately selected in order to reunite them, and which are a testimonial of his relationship with the outside world, he adds others that he has made himself, and which are generally in the schematic image of a living creature, human or animal, and spring in outline from his inner world....

Article

(b Antwerp, April 29, 1920; d Brussels, Sept 19, 1993).

Belgian writer, painter, collagist, draughtsman and sculptor. He left school at the age of 14 and in 1937 met Magritte, and the Belgian writers Louis Scutenaire (1905–87) and Paul Nougé (1895–1967), through whom he soon became drawn into the Surrealist movement. Though largely involved with writing poetry and essays, like many Surrealists he also produced collages, such as La Traversée du rêve (1938–45; Paris, Gal. Isy Brachot). Also in 1937 he participated in his first Surrealist exhibition, Surrealist Objects and Poems, organized by E. L. T. Mesens at the London Gallery in London. From 1940 to 1941 he was held prisoner in Germany. On his return to Belgium he founded the publishing house L’Aiguille Aimantée, which issued Paul Eluard’s Moralité du sommeil in 1941. In 1943 he published the first monograph on Magritte and two years later took part in the important exhibition of Belgian Surrealism at the Galerie La Boëtie in Brussels. In ...

Article

(b Brussels, Nov 27, 1903; d Brussels, May 13, 1971).

Belgian writer, exhibition organizer, collagist and composer. As a young composer he was influenced by Erik Satie. He collaborated on Dadaist-inspired journals and published, with René Magritte, Œsophage (1925), the only issue of which, containing the poems of Hans Arp, Tristan Tzara and Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes, remained faithful to the Dada spirit. In 1926 Marie, a ‘journal bi-mensuel pour la belle jeunesse’, published under his direction, pursued the same vein; it only had two issues. Mesens was involved in the establishment of a Surrealist movement (see Surrealism), which was strongly permeated with Dadaism in Belgium. In 1927 he became Director of the Galerie L’Epoque and in 1931 of the Galerie Mesens, both in Brussels. Miró, Magritte and Max Ernst all exhibited with him. He founded the Editions Nicolas Flamel, which published the Surrealists’ collective homage to a parricide, Violette Nozières (Brussels, 1933), André Breton’s lecture ‘Qu’est-ce que le surréalisme’, held on the occasion of the first international Surrealist exhibition organized in Brussels by Mesens under the auspices of ...

Article

British, 20th–21st century, male.

Born 1968, in England.

Curator, writer, film-maker, publisher. Artists’ books, installation, performance art.

Simon Morris studied at Kingston Polytechnic, London (1987–1990), Winchester School of Art (1996–1997), and took a practice-based PhD in the School of Fine Art, Leeds University (...

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born 12 September 1958, in Boston.

Book artist. Papermaking, installation art.

Robbin Ami Silverberg received a degree in art history and sculpture from Princeton University in 1980. She then spent three years studying bookbinding at the Werkstatt fur Buchgestaltung (Workshop for Book Design) in Vienna. In ...

Article

Morgan Falconer

(b London, Aug 17, 1943).

English conceptual artist and sculptor. He studied at Ealing School of Art (1962–3), began editing and publishing Control Magazine in 1965 and in 1972–3 was Director of the Centre for Behavioural Art in London. Consistently interested in art as an intervention in social patterns and identities, Willats frequently grounded his work in research-based projects. His early art, however, was more object-based. Light Modulator No. 2 (1962; see 1979–80 exh. cat., p. 13), for example, was a project for an outdoor public sculpture made of moving vertical panels, perspex and painted wood, through which people would pass and interact. Willats soon developed these more phenomenological and behavioural concerns into sets of problems concerned with social interaction and cognition. Another early work, Meta Filter (1973; Lyon, Mus. St Pierre A. Contemp.), demonstrates this: a very large installation organized around a large computer, it invites two participants to seek agreement over the meanings of a set of images and statements. Throughout his career Willats continued to design similar interactive projects aimed at encapsulating problems of social conflict. Often his exhibitions evolved out of complex research-based initiatives and extensive collaboration with the public. ...