1-20 of 25 results  for:

Clear all

Article

Chinese, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in China and the United States.

Born 18 May 1957, in Beijing, China.

Artist, architect, designer, curator, publisher, activist.

After spending most of his childhood in the provinces of China, Ai Weiwei moved to Beijing in the mid-1970s to attend the city’s film academy. While there, he co-founded the first of the loose collectives of pro-democracy artists to emerge in the city, known as the Stars Group (...

Article

Geoffrey Belknap

(b Saint-Hippolyte-du-Fort, March 8, 1831; d Alès, April 9, 1885).

French photographer and photographic printer. Bonfils is best known for his photographs of the Mediterranean and Middle East, particularly his five-volume Souvenirs d’Orient: Egypte. Palestine. Syrie. Grèce (1878). Prior to opening a studio briefly in Alès in 1865, he was apprenticed to Abel Niépce de St Victor (180570). Having travelled to Lebanon in 1860 with the French Army to intervene in the conflict between the Druse and the Maronites, Bonfils decided to return to Beirut in 1867 with his wife Marie-Lydie Cabanis and son Adrian to establish a photographic studio under the name La Maison Bonfils. From there Bonfils began his photographic tour of Egypt, Palestine, Syria, and Greece, and sold his views back in his studio. These views included (he claimed) 15,000 albumen prints and 9000 stereoscopic cards. La Maison Bonfils became well known throughout Lebanon, the Middle East, and Europe as a première photographic studio and attracted many tourists seeking photographs of the surrounding area and peoples. Bonfils’s success was compounded when he presented his photographs to the Société Française de Photographie in ...

Article

Hungarian American, 20th century, male.

Born 22 Oct 1913, in Budapest; died 25 May 1954, in Thai Binh, Vietnam.

Photojournalist. War, historical events, portraits.

In 1931 Robert Capa left Budapest for Berlin, where he studied political science at the Deutsche Hochschule für Politik. He had intended to pursue a career in journalism, but found a position with the German photographic agency Dephot. With the rise of the Nazi government, Capa immigrated to Paris, where he formed lasting friendships with David Seymour (Chim) and Henri Cartier-Bresson, with whom he founded the photographic agency Magnum in ...

Article

American, 20th–21st century, male.

Born 1973, in Hong Kong.

Video artist, multi-media artist, activist, and publisher. Artists’ books

Paul Chan spent his early childhood in Hong Kong but immigrated to Omaha, Nebraska, in his youth. He began his BFA in video and digital arts at the Art Institute of Chicago in ...

Article

Celia Carrington Riely

[Ch’en Chi-ju; zi Zhongshun; hao Meigong, Meidaoren, Migong]

(b Huating, Jiangsu Province [modern Songjiang, Shanghai Municipality], 16 Dec 1558; d 19 Oct 1639). Chinese editor, writer, calligrapher and painter. He exemplified the literati ideal of the accomplished gentleman–scholar who rejected the sordid world of political involvement and devoted himself to a life of literary, artistic and philosophical pursuit. At the age of 28, having passed the prefectural examination, the first important step leading to a career in government office, Chen renounced official life in a dramatic gesture, by burning his Confucian cap and gown. Thereafter he lived at country retreats at Kunshan and then Mt She, near Huating in Jiangsu Province: entertaining guests; writing and editing; composing the poems, prefaces, epitaphs and biographies for which he was in constant demand; and travelling to places of scenic beauty in the company of friends.

Chen followed the lead of his close friend Dong Qichang, the foremost painter, calligrapher and connoisseur of the late Ming period (...

Article

Chinese, 20th–21st century, male.

Born 1953.

Painter, sculptor. Portraits, still-lifes, landscapes.

or Zheng Zaidong

Cheng Tsai-tung trained in journalism before switching to painting. While technically fairly rudimentary, his work proceeds from a synthetic vision that he renders in large flat areas.

1984–1985, Taiwan New Painting...

Article

Israeli, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1951.

Photographer. Multimedia.

A theorist and art and philosophy critic, he is also an editor and artist.

He takes part in group exhibitions, notably Implicit Connections in 1997 at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris.

Article

Chinese, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 1954, in Xinzhu, Taiwan.

Painter. Genre scenes, interiors with figures.

Fang Xun graduated in 1978 from the journalism department of the Chinese Culture University, Taipei, and then started her artistic career. In 1986, she began to take part in exhibitions and in ...

Article

Ray McKenzie

(b Chesterfield, Derbys, 1822; d Cannes, Feb 25, 1898).

English photographer. He is noted for his studies of the Middle East and for establishing the largest photographic publishing firm in the 19th century. He was born into a Quaker family and spent five unrewarding years apprenticed to a cutler in Sheffield, suffering a nervous breakdown in 1843. After two years recuperative travel he became a successful businessman, first in wholesale groceries and later in printing. His involvement with photography began at this time. He was one of the founder-members of the Liverpool Photographic Society in 1853 and he exhibited portraits and landscapes to much critical acclaim.

The sale of Frith’s printing firm in 1854 financed the expeditions to Egypt and the Holy Land that were to establish his pre-eminence among early travel photographers. He made three trips between 1856 and 1860 (see fig.). On the first, he sailed up the Nile to the Second Cataract, recording the main historic monuments between Cairo and Abu Simbel. On the second, he struck eastwards to Palestine, visiting Jerusalem, Damascus and other sites associated with the life of Christ. The final expedition was the most ambitious, combining a second visit to the Holy Land with a deeper southward penetration of the Nile. His photographs of the temple at ...

Article

Chinese, 20th century, male.

Born 1890, 1891 or 1893, in Wuxi (Zhejiang Province); died 1974 or 1977.

Painter. Local scenes, landscapes.

A traditional scholar and painter, He Tianjian taught in various art schools. He also edited two art journals Guohua yuekan (Chinese Painting), a monthly review, and ...

Article

American, 19th–20th century, male.

Born 4 April 1843, in Keeseville, New York; died 30 June 1942, in New York City.

Photographer, painter. Landscapes.

William Henry Jackson began his career in 1858 as a retoucher in a photography studio in Troy, New York, and soon moved on to a studio in Rutland, Vermont. Jackson enlisted in the Union Army in ...

Article

LI Qun  

Chinese, 20th century, male.

Born 1912, in Shanxi.

Wood engraver, illustrator.

Li Qun studied at the national art academy in Zhejiang (Hangzhou) and taught at the Lu Xun academy from 1940 to 1945. He founded the Hang Zhou journal The People’s Illustrated, was vice president of the Shanxi Literary Association and the China Woodcut Association, and then became honorary president of the China Etching Association....

Article

Juliann Wolfgram

[Baiō]

(b 1686; d 1764).

Japanese print designer, painter, book illustrator and publisher. Although Masanobu’s artistic career spanned six decades, Edo-period (1600–1868) documents reveal little about his life. However, his prolific artistic output and technical innovations make him one of the leading figures of the early history of Japanese woodblock printing and ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’, see Japan §X 2., (iii)). He began his career in 1701 with a copy of an album of courtesans known as Keisei ehon (‘Yoshiwara picture book’; Chicago, IL, A. Inst.) by Torii Kiyonobu I (see Torii family, §1). His earliest sumizurie (‘black-and-white pictures’) were based on the subject-matter and style of the Torii school and were published in sets of 12 large prints (ōban) or in illustrated books (ehon). Masanobu illustrated no less than 19 novelettes and produced over 30 ehon (see Japan §X 2.). During the formative stage of his career, Masanobu also wrote popular fiction, which led him to develop a pictorial means of conveying literary wit and humour. Through the production of visual parodies of classical themes, known as ...

Article

Malcolm Gee

[Israel Ber]

(b Skole, Ukraine, March 2, 1887; d Rye, NY, April 28, 1961).

German dealer and publisher, active in the USA. Israel Ber Neumann, known as J. B. Neumann, opened his first print gallery in Berlin in 1911, exhibiting work by Edvard Munch and members of Brücke, Die. In 1913 he exhibited the complete prints of Munch in three shows and in 1915–16 was secretary to the Berlin Secession. After World War I Neumann, like other dealers in Expressionist art, initially met favourable conditions, with widespread demand for the work of such artists as Max Beckmann, who signed an exclusive contract with Neumann in 1921. This was a close but difficult relationship on both the personal and the commercial level. The deterioration of the German economic and political situation led Neumann to attempt to break into the American market, becoming permanently based in New York from 1923. He entrusted his Berlin gallery to Karl Nierendorf and the Munich one to Günther Franke. In ...

Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1923, in Nagoya.

Engraver.

Nomura Hiroshi graduated from the imperial fine arts college and worked as a journalist until 1962. He became a member of the Japanese Engravers’ Association. His work was exhibited regularly at the International Print Biennale in Tokyo from ...

Article

Chinese, 20th century, male.

Born 1914, in Jixian (Henan).

Painter. Landscapes.

Qin Lingyun studied in the department of painting in the National Institute of Arts in Beijing. He was an editor at a Beijing publishing house for popular fine art editions, after which he became a traditional painter....

Article

Norihisa Mizuta

[Bussai; Dokusō; Gakusen; Hanbutsu koji; Kyūsui Gyojin; Mandarakyo]

(b Kyoto, 1738; d Osaka, 1797).

Japanese seal-carver, poet and editor. Afflicted by poverty in Kyoto, he moved to Osaka, where he studied Confucianism and Chinese literature with Katayama Hokkai (1723–90) and Hosoai Hansai (1727–1803) and joined the society of Chinese poetry, the Kontonshisha. He learnt seal-carving from Kō Fuyō and was so successful in absorbing the characteristics of the Archaic school that he was known as ‘Fuyō’s shadow’. Together with Maegawa Kyoshū and Katsu Shikin, he was an important advocate of the Archaic school in the Naniwa (now Osaka) area (see Japan §XVII 20.).

Albums of seals he carved include the Rekiken sanbō inpu, Dokusōan in’in and the Gakusen in’in. Shii also researched the background to seal scholarship and wrote the works Insekikō (‘Thoughts on borrowed seals’) and Ingosan (‘Outline of seal terms’). The Insekikō, published posthumously in 1802, is a catalogue raisonné of Japanese and Chinese seal albums introduced to Japan at that time. It also assesses the state and level of seal scholarship. No such catalogue had hitherto been compiled, even in China, and it was highly praised. The ...

Article

Mendel Metzger

Family of Jewish printers, active in Italy, Turkey and Egypt. They originated in Germany but emigrated to Lombardy and settled in Soncino near Crema in 1454, taking the name of the town as their patronymic. Their first printing press was set up in Soncino by Yoshua (d 1493) and Moses (d 1489), sons of Israel Nathan (d 1492?), a physician. The family was active between 1483, the date of Yoshua’s first book, and 1562, when the 184th and last publication was printed by his great-great-nephew in Cairo. Seven family members were printers: Yoshua, his brother Moses, Moses’s sons Solomon and Gershom [Hieronymus Soncinus] (d 1534), Gershom’s children Moses and Eliezer (d 1547) and Eliezer’s son Gershom (d 1562). Yoshua published only Hebrew books (42 editions, all incunabula) during his short career (1483–9 in Soncino, 1489–92 in Naples). Gershom’s career, however, was one of the longest (...

Article

Chinese, 14th century, male.

Born 1310; died 1381.

Art lover, scholar, art critic.

Song Lian was a historian, man of letters and art critic. He is best known as the editor of the History of the Yuan Dynasty. He also published an essay entitled Origin of Painting...

Article

Indian, 20th century, male.

Born 21 June 1928, in Simla.

Painter, draughtsman, sculptor.

After time spent as a political agitator, an author of children’s books and a journalist, Swaminathan dedicated himself to drawing and painting, studying first of all at the Delhi Polytechnic, and then, in ...