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Chola  

J. Marr

[Coḷa]

Dynasty in south India that was prominent until the 13th century ad. The Cholas, best known for their patronage of temple architecture, were one of the principal royal lineages of the Tamil country. They are mentioned in the edicts of Ashoka (3rd century bc) and figure in the earliest Tamil literature (1st–4th century ad). However, little archaeological evidence exists for the Cholas before the 9th century ad. The first ruler, Vijayalaya (reg c. 846–71), captured Thanjavur from his Pallava overlords. Aditya I (reg c. 871–907) annexed the Pallava kingdom in Tondaimandalam (now Tamil Nadu) in 903, and Parantaka I (reg c. 907–55) attacked and conquered the Pandya rulers of Madurai. The two greatest Chola rulers were Rajaraja I (reg 985–1014) and his son Rajendra I (reg 1012–44), made co-regent in 1012. Apart from their conquests, which extended from Sri Lanka to Sumatra, they were responsible for splendid temple buildings. That at Thanjavur, the ...

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Sukarno  

H. I. R. Hinzler

(b Surabaya, East Java, 6 June 1901; d Jakarta, 20 June 1970). Indonesian politician and collector. After education (1915–21) at Dutch schools in Surabaya, he studied civil engineering at the Institute of Technology in Bandung (1921–6). He became active in the Indonesian nationalist movement and was arrested, imprisoned and deported several times by the Dutch. As President (1945–67) of the Republic of Indonesia he stressed the need for the development of a national art and did much to encourage artists. A founder in 1943 of the Yogyakarta Painters Union, the Centre of People’s Power (Pusat Tenaga Rakyat, PUTERA), he favoured the curriculum at the Yogyakarta Academy, which emphasized tradition and nationalism and rejected the Western style of the Bandung Academy in the 1950s. He took over existing pre-war collections of paintings and added items until his death.

Lee Man-Fong, ed.: Paintings and Statues from the Collection of President Sukarno of the Republic of Indonesia...