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T. Affleck Greeves

(b Burgess Hill, Sussex, 1849; d London, Aug 17, 1933).

English architect, editor and draughtsman. After completing his articles with H. N. Goulty of Brighton, he became assistant to William Ralph Emerson, and Architect to Brighton Council. Between 1872 and 1923 he was Editor of Building News. He instituted the Building News Designing Club, which enabled young architects to submit designs for his criticism. He contributed largely to the paper’s illustrations, redrawing designs for lithographic reproduction, and covered a wide range of subjects in a skilful and accurate, if somewhat dull, linear style. He also published several architectural books. Through the owner of Building News he obtained his major architectural commissions, notably Camberwell Polytechnic and Art Gallery (1902). He also designed country houses near London, for example Queensmead Cottage, Kings Road, Windsor, Berks (1883), for Reginald Talbot, as well as in Australia (e.g. Bellevue Hill, Double Bay, for Charles B. Fairfax in the mid-1880s) and America, where he designed timber houses in New Jersey for E. S. Wilde in ...


(b Holywood, County Down, Ireland, Jan 26, 1922).

Australian painter, printmaker, book designer, lecturer, collector, gallery director and publisher of limited edition artists’ books, of Irish decent. He worked as a draughtsman before entering war service in the British Admiralty from 1940 to 1949, including five years in Colombo, where he made sketching trips to jungle temples with the Buddhist monk and artist Manjsiro Thero. Between 1949 and 1951 Adams worked as an exhibition designer in London and studied wood-engraving with Gertrude Hermes in her evening class at the Central School of Arts and Crafts (now Central St Martin’s College of Art and Design). In 1951, after moving to Melbourne, Adams began a 30-year teaching commitment at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT), where he instructed many of the younger generation of Australian printmakers, including George Baldessin and Jan Senbergs. A brief return to Britain and Ireland in 1957–8 provided experience with Dolmen Press, Dublin, which published his first book of engravings, ...


Chinese, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in China and the United States.

Born 18 May 1957, in Beijing, China.

Artist, architect, designer, curator, publisher, activist.

After spending most of his childhood in the provinces of China, Ai Weiwei moved to Beijing in the mid-1970s to attend the city’s film academy. While there, he co-founded the first of the loose collectives of pro-democracy artists to emerge in the city, known as the Stars Group (1979–1983). In 1981, he travelled to the United States, first to Philadelphia before enrolling in New York City’s Parsons School of Design. During his student years, Ai worked at a printing press in the meatpacking district of New York City. In 1993, he returned to Beijing, where he co-founded the Chinese Art Archives & Warehouse (CAAW), a non-profit organization and gallery. In Shanghai in 2000, Ai co-curated, with Feng Boyi, the infamous Fuck Off exhibition, which was closed by the authorities at the same time that the first Shanghai Biennial took place. He published a series of books about experimental art in Europe and North America: ...


(Gruenwald, Alfred Emanuel Ferdinand]

(b Stettin, Pomerania [now Szczecin, Poland], Oct 9, 1892; d nr Chamonix, France, 17 or Aug 18, 1927).

German collagist, draughtsman, writer and publisher. Although he came from an upper middle-class family, after serving as a volunteer in World War I he became a pacifist and a supporter of democratic socialism on Soviet lines. In 1918 he began a political career as a committee member of the mid-Rhine district of the Independent Social-Democratic Party, a Marxist party that had split from the Social-Democratic Party of Germany. The short-lived journal he edited, Der Ventilator, which published six issues in Cologne in February and March 1919, was a satirical magazine directed against the Social Democrat government in Berlin.

Having discovered the work of de Chirico and come under the influence of Dada, in autumn 1919 Baargeld became an opponent of tradition and convention in art as well, setting himself particularly against Expressionism. In November 1919 he and Max Ernst, who together can be said to have founded the Cologne branch of ...


Julio Roberto Katinsky

revised by Adrian Anagost


(b Rome, Dec 5, 1914; d São Paulo, Mar 29, 1992).

Brazilian architect of Italian birth. She graduated in architecture (1939) from the University of Rome, where director Marcello Piacentini oversaw a curriculum dominated by the classicizing monumentality of Fascist Italy. In 1940 she moved to Milan and worked for publications seeking to modernize Italian architecture and interior design, including Lo Stile (1941–1943) and Domus (1943–1944). In 1945 she co-organized the critical rationalist architects’ group Movimento studi architettura, and participated in debates on postwar reconstruction at the Primo Convegno Nazionale per la Ricostruzione Edilizia, with Ernesto Nathan Rogers and others. In 1946 she worked with architect Bruno Zevi on the magazine A– Cultura della Vita, wrote for the revived Domus under editor Gio Ponti, and designed displays for a Milan commercial fair.

In September 1946 she moved to Brazil where her husband, Pietro Maria Bardi (1900–1999), was invited to establish and direct the ...


Mariana Katzarova

(b Dolni Dŭbnik, nr Pleven, July 24, 1901; d Sofia, Jan 23, 1958).

Bulgarian cartoonist, illustrator, draughtsman, painter, teacher, editor and critic. In 1926 he studied painting at the Academy of Art, Sofia, and although he was later known for his paintings, he achieved greater fame as a political and social cartoonist and newspaper and magazine illustrator. His early cartoons are courageous commentaries on political events in Bulgaria from 1925 to 1934, wittily satirizing the monarchy and dictatorships. He also mocked the machinations of the various bourgeois political parties as they fought for power. Among his most celebrated cartoons are the Kidnapping of the Constitution and the Tsar’s Family, published in the Sofia newspapers Zemedelsko Zname and Sturetz, as well as Suvremennik and other left-wing publications. He also illustrated the series Spanish Chronicle (1936). In 1940 he began freelancing for the anti-Fascist satirical newspaper Sturshel (Sofia) and in 1941 became its editor. During World War II he executed many political cartoons opposing Fascism and Nazism (e.g. ...


Dianne Timmerman and Frank van den Hoek

(b Amsterdam, Feb 1, 1891; d Amsterdam, May 5, 1951).

Dutch architect and writer. He studied civil engineering at the Technische Hogeschool, Delft, graduating in 1916. For a period he was editor of the architectural periodical Bouwkundig Weekblad, his articles revealing an admiration for Le Corbusier and Ernst May, particularly the latter’s efficient manner of working. He left the journal in 1924 because of its insufficient coverage of Functionalism. Between 1919 and 1926 he worked for the Department of Public Works in Amsterdam, mainly in the idiom of the Amsterdam school, for example a telephone exchange (1923) in East Amsterdam. His later projects, for example the houses (1927–8) in Aalsmeerderstraat and Sassenheimstraat, Amsterdam, are simpler, more rigid and make more use of glass. In 1928 Boeken joined the Amsterdam Functionalists of Architectengroep de 8 8, but he left before 1931. As a member of the main Dutch architectural society, Architectura et Amicitia, he supported Arthur Staal, who tried to push the society in the direction of Functionalism. In ...


Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1922, in Treviso.

Painter, designer, architect.

Bonfante studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera and at the Milan school of architecture. He also devoted a large part of his life to journalism and in 1948, he became a designer. In ...


Elizabeth Meredith Dowling

(b Richmond, VA, Feb 24, 1883; d Glen Head, Long Island, NY, Feb 1, 1951).

American architect, preservationist, author, and editor. His wealthy patrician family provided the opportunity for a fine education and connections to future clients. In 1906 he received a Bachelor of Architecture degree from Columbia University. His education continued in Rome at the American Academy through receipt of the McKim Fellowship in Architecture in 1907. In 1908 he passed the entrance examination for the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and remained in Paris until 1909.

Best known for his residential work, Bottomley combined his extensive knowledge of architectural history with his own observations to produce personal interpretations of past styles. Of his approximately 186 commissions, 90 were located in New York and 51 in Virginia. His most recognized residential commissions are found on Monument Avenue in Richmond, VA. Produced during the 1920s and 1930s, these residences, like many of his other projects, have exteriors inspired by nearby 18th-century James River Georgian mansions. Their interiors deviate from the Georgian models with creatively arranged plans that display a particular delight in the use of curving stairs within a variety of different shaped foyers....


Vanina Costa

(b Nantes, Sept 17, 1907; d Paris, May 8, 1977).

French painter, sculptor, draughtsman and poet. He moved in 1926 to Paris, where he became involved with Surrealism, soon afterwards publishing his first collection of poems, Opoponax (Paris, 1927). In 1934 he exhibited a series of automatic drawings, which were followed by images produced with the assistance of objets trouvés: in Street Object (1936; Paris, Pompidou), for instance, he placed a sheet of paper on the road and then drove a car over it so as to leave the imprint of the tyre tracks. Another work of this period consisted of a bus sign bearing the same letters as his initials, so that it could be read as his signature. He also produced assemblages in a Surrealist spirit, such as Morphology of Desire (wood, plaster, metal, candle and torch, 1934–7; Paris, Pompidou). After World War II Bryen turned increasingly towards painting, through which he became a leading exponent of ...


Swiss, 20th century, female.

Active in France.

Born 12 January 1936, in Paris.


Françoise Chaillet initially studied architecture at the Paris École des Beaux-Arts, before working as a dress designer and journalist for fashion journals. She exhibited her paintings in 1963 with the École de Paris, in ...


Tapati Guha-Thakurta



J. M. Richards

(b London, July 18, 1902; d Bedham, Surrey, Oct 20, 1986).

English architectural editor, publisher and writer. He studied architecture at the Bartlett School, University of London, and art at the Slade School, London, and in 1926 he joined the Architectural Press, of which his father was proprietor. In 1927–32 and 1935–7 he was editor of the Architectural Review, transforming it from a staid, academic magazine to one notable for its adventurous policies and original use of photographs and typography, which strongly influenced English magazine production. He was also editor of the Architects’ Journal (1932–7) and a founder-member of the English modern architecture MARS Group (1933). In 1937 he left London for Sussex, where he farmed, but he remained chairman of the Architectural Press until his retirement in 1973 and retained a dominating influence over the conduct and policies of the company’s publications. His special interests were planning and land use, about which he promoted influential features in the ...


Patrick Conner, David Tatham and Tapati Guha-Thakurta

English family of artists. Daniel Havell (d ?1826) was an engraver and publisher of topographical and architectural works distinguished by a delicacy of line. He worked in London and was for a time in partnership with Robert Havell I (1769–1832), a painter, engraver and publisher. According to their descendants, Robert was undeniably Daniel’s son, though there is evidence to suggest that he may have been his uncle. The family firm engraved work by (1) William Havell, a cousin of Daniel Havell, and a painter and traveller. Robert Havell I later became self-employed and set up in business for a time in Oxford Street with his son (2) Robert Havell jr. In 1839 Robert Havell jr went to the USA at the invitation of John James Audubon, for whom he had engraved many of the plates for Birds of America. (3) Ernest Binfield Havell, a great-nephew of (1) William Havell, seems to have inherited the family love of travel and painting and became a distinguished art teacher in India and a scholar of Indian art....


Günther Kühne

(Manfred Maria Ellis)

(b Mannheim, June 15, 1881; d New York, Apr 12, 1936).

German urban planner, writer and editor. He studied urban planning, art history and economics in Berlin, Munich, Paris and Strasbourg, and at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. He took a doctorate in political science at Munich in 1908. His travels made him aware from an early date of the importance of social issues in urban planning. He organized planning exhibitions in Boston (1909), Berlin (1910) and elsewhere, and he published his conclusions in an influential two-volume work, Der Städtebau (1911–13), which led directly to the formation of Berlin’s municipal structure, the Zweckverband Gross-Berlin, in 1912; in 1920 this became the Einheitsgemeinde Gross-Berlin, an organization that survived until the division of the city in 1948. From 1913 to the end of World War I, Hegemann was in the USA, working both as a teacher and as a planner. Back in Germany, from 1924 to 1933...


or Andor Kertész

American, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born, 2 July 1894, in Budapest; died 28 September 1985, in New York City.

Photographer, photojournalist.

Portraits, still-lifes, urban scenes, landscapes, interiors, architecture.

André Kertész first experimented with photography while a young clerk in the Budapest stock exchange. His early photographs are of the Hungarian countryside and feature friends and family members. In 1914, Kertész was recruited into the Austro-Hungarian army and brought his camera to the front, recording the mundane activities of soldiers in camp. When he was wounded in 1915, Kertész recorded his convalescence. After the war, Kertész returned to his clerking position and submitted his photographs to papers and periodicals, such as Erdekes-Ujsàg. Encouraged by the reception of his amateur works, Kertész moved in 1925 to Paris, where he circulated amongst expatriate writers, artists and photographers and published photographs in the periodical press. Café du Dome, Paris (1925) records this environment with the city’s lively cafés at center. His work includes portraits of artists and writers such as Brassaï and Colette. Kertész’s photographs from this era reveal a modernist fascination with patterns and shadows created by streetlamps, city railings and park chairs. He also photographed from unusual or elevated perspectives, as in his ...


Deborah C. Mays

(b Stirling, July 3, 1855; d Edinburgh, Jan 7, 1931).

Scottish architect. After training with John Hutchison (c. 1840–1908) in Glasgow and continuing under Wardrop and Reid in Edinburgh, he travelled abroad, publishing Details from Italian Buildings, chiefly Renaissance in 1882. He was in practice with Henry Seymour (fl 1882–1901) in Edinburgh until 1889, working independently until 1897 when he was joined by Harold Ogle Tarbolton (1869–1947) until 1905. Domestic commissions were his favoured field, including numerous additions (1890–1905) to the mansion and estate of Manderston, Berwickshire; four houses (1897–1900) in Mortonhall Road, Edinburgh; Altyre estate works (1900–02); Carlekemp (1898), East Lothian; and The Peel (1904–7), Selkirkshire. His designs incorporated an extensive range of sources, drawing particularly from Scottish 17th-century precedents. Perceptive interpretation and sensitive treatment earned his restorations a high contemporary reputation. His restorations include Falkland Palace (1890–98), St Andrew’s Augustinian Priory (...


(b Saginaw, MI, May 24, 1917).

American architect and designer. Orphaned as a child, Florence Knoll Bassett was educated at the Kingswood School for Girls, part of the Cranbrook community of schools in Bloomfield Hills, MI, founded by Detroit publisher George Booth and Finnish architect Saarinen family §(1). At Kingswood, she forged a close relationship with Saarinen and his wife Loja, a textile designer. In 1934, Eliel Saarinen encouraged her to study architecture at the Cranbrook Academy of Art where she continued until 1939, departing for periods to study at the Columbia University School of Architecture and the Architectural Association in London.

In 1940, Knoll Bassett furthered her understanding of architecture and design under leading figures of the Bauhaus by studying with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe at the Illinois Institute of Technology and working briefly in the architectural office of Walter Gropius and Marcel Breuer. The following year, she arrived in New York and found employment at the firm of Harrison and Abramovitz designing interiors. Through the firm, she met manufacturer and retailer of modern furniture, Hans Knoll (...


(b Budapest, Dec 14, 1878; d Budapest, Aug 31, 1941).

Hungarian architect and editor. He received his diploma in 1901 from the Hungarian Palatine Joseph Technical University, Budapest. After a study trip to western Europe, he worked first with Ödön Lechner, then with Béla Lajta. From 1908 to 1911 he edited the architectural journal A Ház, in which, inspired primarily by the Garden city movement and the efforts of M. H. Baillie Scott, he advocated the building of detached family houses on estates. From 1907 to 1914 he worked in partnership with Gyula Haász (1877–1945) in Budapest. Their first commission was a group of four-storey residential blocks built (1909–10) around an enclosed court on Hungária Boulevard, Budapest, as part of a municipal housing plan. Most of the partnership’s later works were middle-class residential blocks, in a severe, unornamented style with a few classicizing features, such as pedimented gables, colonnades and friezes, influenced by the Biedermeyer revival ...


Gilbert Herbert


(b Queenstown, Cape Province, Feb 26, 1905; d Pretoria, Aug 23, 1942).

South African architect and writer. He was appointed lecturer at the University of the Witwatersrand and an editor of the South African Architectural Record in 1932, both under G. E. Pearse’s tolerant tutelage. For the next decade he dominated the School of Architecture and the journal, using them as levers to bring about an architectural revolution, which swept South Africa into the mainstream of the Modern Movement. He was the principal motivator of the small revolutionary cadre, and, with Gordon McIntosh and Norman Hanson, stood at the heart of that band of enthusiasts that Le Corbusier dubbed the ‘Transvaal Group’. Martienssen’s writing, a heady mixture of erudition and passionate advocacy, articulated the philosophy and provided the informational data base; his teaching enlightened and inflamed the younger generation. His friendship with Le Corbusier gave status and legitimization to the geographically and culturally isolated group.

Martienssen was a talented designer, but not a compulsive architect. His few buildings should be considered as teaching exemplars, which demonstrate an architectural point, rather than as the productive continuum of architectural practice. His short-lived association with ...