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Article

Christine Mullen Kreamer

(b Jan 25, 1930; d Lomé, Jan 4, 2010).

Togolese painter, sculptor, engraver, stained glass designer, potter and textile designer. Beginning in 1946, he received his secondary education in Dakar, where he also worked in an architecture firm. He travelled to France and received his diplôme supérieur from the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. A versatile artist, Ahyi is best known for his murals and for monumental stone, marble and cement public sculptures. His work reflects the fusion of his Togolese roots, European training and an international outlook, and he counts among his influences Moore, Braque, Modigliani, Tamayo, Siqueiros and Tall. His work combines ancient and modern themes and materials, maternity being a prominent topic. The messages of his larger, public pieces operate on a broad level to appeal to the general populace, while smaller works often reflect his private engagement with challenges confronting the human condition. His compositions are both abstract and figurative and evoke the heroism and hope of the two world wars, Togo's colonial period and the struggle for independence from France, as well as the political efforts of the peoples of Vietnam, South Africa and Palestine. Ahyi has won numerous international prizes, including the prize of the city of Lyon (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 April 1868, in Hamburg; died 27 February 1940, in Berlin.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, architect, designer, decorative artist, graphic designer. Posters, furniture, wallpaper, carpets, glassware, ceramics, table services, jewellery, silverwork, objets d'art, typefaces.

Jugendstil, functional school.

Die Sieben (Group of Seven), Deutscher Werkbund...

Article

Swiss, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in Fontanello, near Parma, Italy.

Born 1956, in Neuchâtel.

Engraver (copper/etching/line-engraving). Figures, landscapes, architectural views.

André Beuchat has lived in Italy since 1980 and opened a ceramics studio in Fidenza. He had his first experience of line-engraving at the school of the International Centre for Engraving in Venice in ...

Article

Alastair Laing

(b Paris, Sept 29, 1703; d Paris, May 30, 1770).

French painter, draughtsman and etcher. Arguably it was he, more than any other artist, who set his stamp on both the fine arts and the decorative arts of the 18th century. Facilitated by the extraordinary proliferation of engravings, Boucher successfully fed the demand for imitable imagery at a time when most of Europe sought to follow what was done at the French court and in Paris. He did so both as a prolific painter and draughtsman (he claimed to have produced some 10,000 drawings during his career) and through engravings after his works, the commercial potential of which he seems to have been one of the first artists to exploit. He reinvented the genre of the pastoral, creating an imagery of shepherds and shepherdesses as sentimental lovers that was taken up in every medium, from porcelain to toile de Jouy, and that still survives in a debased form. At the same time, his manner of painting introduced the virtuosity and freedom of the sketch into the finished work, promoting painterliness as an end in itself. This approach dominated French painting until the emergence of Neo-classicism, when criticism was heaped on Boucher and his followers. His work never wholly escaped this condemnation, even after the taste for French 18th-century art started to revive in the second half of the 19th century. In his own day, the fact that he worked for both collectors and the market, while retaining the prestige of a history painter, had been both Boucher’s strength and a cause of his decline....

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 11 January 1911, in Tournai; died 1996.

Sculptor (metal), ceramicist, engraver, lithographer. Stage sets, designs for tapestries, architectural integration.

Pierre Caille attended evening classes at the academy in Tournai, and in 1929-1930 worked in Joris Minne's workshop at the École d'Architecture et des Arts Decoratifs in Brussels, founded by Henry van de Velde in ...

Article

British, 19th century, male.

Born 1795, in London; died 1855.

Painter, watercolourist, engraver, draughtsman. Historical subjects, figures, architectural views.

Alfred Clayton was an architect as well as an artist and author of many engravings.

London, 10 July 1984: Figures in a Temple (watercolour pencil and pen heightened with white...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 17 December 1859, in Vannes; died 23 March 1927, in Paris.

Painter, pastellist, potter, engraver, draughtsman. Nudes, portraits, genre scenes, sporting subjects, architectural views, landscapes, flowers.

Paul Helleu was the pupil of Gérôme at the École Nationale des Beaux-Arts. In 1893 he became a member of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts and was also an honorary member of the International Society of Sculptors, Painters and Engravers in London. He was made Chevalier de la Légion d'Honneur in 1904. It appears that he initially abandoned painting in favour of ceramics, but returned to painting by way of decorative works and was also an engraver of great skill. He was one of those artists who best synthesise modern elegance in both his paintings and his engravings or dry-point work. With technical ability he rendered the spirit of 20th-century feminine grace. But before devoting himself to this style, he was a painter of old churches, of Gothic naves and stained glass windows with the play of sunlight on them. His ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active from 1933 active in Switzerland.

Born 4 May 1874, in Hörde (Westphalia); died 18 July 1949, in Interlaken or Beatenberg (Canton of Bern).

Sculptor (including bronze/majolica/ceramics), painter (including gouache), engraver, draughtsman, architect, graphic designer. Statuettes, figurines.

Jugendstil.

Darmstadt Artists' Colony, Worpswede Artists' Colony...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 30 September 1888, in Chapman (Kansas); died 1970.

Painter, engraver, ceramicist, architect. Figures, landscapes.

Henry Varnum Poor studied at Stanford before travelling to Europe where he trained under Walter Sickert at the Slade School of Art in London and at the Académie Julian in Paris. During World War I, he served in France with the American Expeditionary Force. In ...

Article

Spanish, 20th–21st century, male.

Born 13 December 1923, in Barcelona. Died 6 February 2012, in Barcelona.

Painter (including mixed media), collage artist, engraver, illustrator, sculptor, assemblage artist, ceramicist. Murals, architectural integration, designs for mosaics, stage sets.

Dau al Set (Seven-faced Die) Group.

After the long period, from the beginning of the Spanish Civil War to the end of World War II, during which manifestations of avant-garde art were practically forbidden in Spain, Antoni Tàpies became the first Spanish painter to achieve international reputation and give young Spanish artists the impetus that would allow them to take over from the generation of Pablo Picasso, Juan Gris, and Joan Miró. While a student, he had begun to show an interest in modern art and experimented with drawing and painting, although he had received no formal training. He began studying law in 1943 but continued to paint, abandoning law in 1946. In 1948, with a group of Barcelona writers and painters, he collaborated to the ...

Article

Monica E. Kupfer

(b Horconcitos, Chiriquí, Feb 11, 1927).

Panamanian painter, ceramicist, printmaker, tapestry designer and landscape architect. He studied both architecture and painting in Panama, holding his first exhibition in 1953; he then continued his studies in Madrid (1954–8) at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, at the Escuela de Cerámica de la Moncloa and at the Escuela Superior de Arquitectura. In 1959 he returned to Panama, where he began a long teaching career at the Universidad de Panamá. In the early 1960s Trujillo painted social satires, such as The Commissioners (1964; Panama City, Mus. A. Contemp.) with small monstrous figures in cavernous settings. Later his palette brightened as he turned to new subjects based on nature, including numerous still-lifes and semi-abstract paintings with botanical allusions, for example Still-life with Fruit (1975; Washington, DC, A. Mus. Americas).

Always a versatile and prolific artist, in the 1970s and 1980s he based his subjects both on his rich imagination and on his knowledge of Panama’s indigenous cultures. He made recurring reference to the patterns of pre-Columbian ceramics, natural and biomorphic forms, mythological and primitive figures, and Indian symbols and ceremonies, all treated as elements of an iconography strongly related to his Panamanian origin. Although generally classified as belonging to the return to figuration among Latin American artists, he ranged stylistically from realism to abstraction....

Article

Danish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active also active in France.

Born 7 September 1863, in Copenhagen; died 1958, in Cannes, France.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, sculptor, potter, architect, pastellist, art writer. Figures, portraits, landscapes, landscapes with figures.

Jens Ferdinand Willumsen studied under Kroyer at the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen. He visited France (Paris, 1889-1889) and Spain, where he was influenced by El Greco. He returned to Paris and lived there from 1890 to 1894. A visit to Pont Aven and Le Pouldu in 1890 saw him forge a friendship with Gauguin and Sérusier and, on his return to his native Copenhagen, he and a number of other Danish painters and sculptors launched the ...

Article

Leila Krogh

(b Copenhagen, Sept 7, 1863; d Cannes, April 4, 1958).

Danish painter, printmaker, sculptor, ceramicist, architect and collector. He studied from 1881 at the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen and in 1886 at Peder Severin Krøyer’s Frie Skole there. His style changed radically during his travels in France and Spain (1888–9) and during a stay in France, where he met and exhibited with French artists, including Paul Gauguin. In Brittany he painted several scenes of local people, similar to Gauguin’s work of this period, for example Two Women Walking, Brittany (1890; Frederikssund, Willumsens Mus.). In such works Willumsen emphasized the element of vigorous movement. From the start of his career Willumsen also made prints (etchings from 1885, lithographs from 1910 and woodcuts from 1920): early, more realistic works, such as the Copenhagen townscape of Woman Out for a Walk (1889) soon gave way to a bolder, more Symbolist approach, as in Fertility (1891), which showed his wife Juliette in an advanced stage of pregnancy and raised a storm of protest when exhibited at the Copenhagen Frie Udstilling (Free Exhibition), which Willumsen and others had founded. His major work from this period is ...