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Article

Constance W. Glenn

(b Hawker, Port Augusta, S. Australia, March 11, 1900; d San Francisco, CA, Aug 10, 1983).

American photographer of Australian birth. Bruehl trained as an electrical engineer in Melbourne, but in 1919 he emigrated to the USA. He developed his interest in photography while working for the Western Electric Company, New York. In 1923 he attended an exhibition by students of Clarence H(udson) White, who was then considered America’s most prominent Pictorialist photographer. White agreed to teach him privately, but by 1924 Bruehl had become both a regular student at White’s New York school and a member of his summer faculty in Canaan, CT. White encouraged the individualism shown by his students. Among them, Bruehl, Paul Outerbridge and Ralph Steiner became known for a crisp, graphic style that would distinguish the best commercial photography in the 1920s and 1930s.

In 1927 Bruehl opened his own studio, which prospered in New York until 1966. The photograph Untitled (Riverside, U. CA, Mus. Phot., see 1985 exh. cat., no. 20) of an apple, camera and lamp exemplifies his use of high contrast with black background and is an example of the table-top still-lifes that appeared in such magazines as ...

Article

Gensler  

Sara Stevens

American architectural firm started by Arthur Gensler Drue Gensler, and Jim Follett in 1965 in San Francisco, CA. M. Arthur Gensler jr (b Brooklyn, New York, 1935) attended Cornell University to study architecture (BArch, 1957). The firm began doing build-outs for retail stores and corporate offices, and initially established itself in the unglamorous area of interior architecture. Thirty years later and without mergers or acquisitions, it had grown to become one of the largest architecture firms in the world, having pioneered the global consultancy firm specializing in coordinated rollouts of multi-site building programmes. By 2012 the firm had over 3000 employees in over 40 offices. From the beginning, Art Gensler conceived of a global firm with multiple offices serving corporate clients whose businesses were becoming more international. Instead of the ‘starchitect’ model of his contemporaries such as I. M. Pei or Paul Rudolph, Gensler wanted an ego-free office that existed to serve client needs, not pursue a designer’s aesthetic agenda at the client’s expense. By adopting new web-based computing technologies and integrated design software in the early 1990s, the firm stayed well connected across their many offices and were more able than their competitors to manage large multi-site projects. Expanding from the services a traditional architecture firm offers, the company pushed into new areas well suited to their information technology and interiors expertise, such as organizational design, project management, and strategic facilities planning....

Article

Rory Spence

American architects and designers, also active in Australia and India. Marion Mahony Griffin (née Mahony) (b Chicago, 14 Feb 1871; d Chicago, 10 Aug 1961) worked together with her husband Walter Burley Griffin (b Maywood, IL, 24 Nov 1876; d Lucknow, 11 Feb 1937) after their marriage in 1911. She was the second woman to graduate in architecture (1894) from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, and worked for Dwight Perkins (1867–1941) before joining Frank Lloyd Wright’s studio in 1895. There she produced many of the perspective drawings for Wright’s designs, including several of those used for the influential Wasmuth portfolio Ausgeführte Bauten und Entwürfe von Frank Lloyd Wright (Berlin, 1910), which are among the finest architectural drawings of the 20th century. After Wright’s departure from Chicago in 1909, she assisted Hermann von Holst, who took over his practice. In Wright’s studio she also met Walter Burley Griffin, who had studied architecture (...

Article

Peter Reynolds

(b Saint John, NB, Oct 1838; d Sydney, NSW, Dec 27, 1904).

Australian architect of Canadian birth. The son of a carpenter, he trained in Boston, MA, under Edward Clarke Cabot (1818–91). When the American Civil War broke out in 1861 he travelled to India, but on arriving in Sydney in 1863 he decided to stay to work with Edmund Blacket. By 1865 he was Blacket’s chief assistant, but he left in May 1869 for a brief partnership with John Hilly (1810–83), establishing his own practice later that year. For the next 30 years his mastery of a complex and asymmetrical free-Gothic style, combined with an outstanding skill in the use of timber and brickwork, was demonstrated in many significant buildings, for example the cathedrals at Armidale (1871) and Grafton (1880) and churches at Denman (1871), Branxton (1873) and Dapto (1882). The stone-vaulted chapel of the Sacred Heart (...

Article

Ian J. Lochhead

(Alston)

(b Harrisburg, PA, July 1, 1885; d Santa Barbara, CA, April 28, 1969).

American architect, active in Australia and New Zealand. Lippincott studied architecture (1905–9) at Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, and on graduation worked for the firms of Von Holst and Fyfe (1909–11) and Spencer and Powers (1912), both in Chicago. In 1913 Lippincott became chief draughtsman to Walter Burley Griffin, becoming a junior partner and moving to Australia with Griffin in 1914, when he also married Griffin’s sister, Genevieve. Lippincott participated in planning the new capital of Canberra and managed the firm’s Melbourne office. It is difficult to distinguish his designs from those of Griffin, and Lippincott’s own house (1917), 21 Glenard Drive, Heidelberg, Victoria, clearly reveals the influence of the Prairie school. In 1920, in partnership with Edward Billson, who also worked in Griffin’s office, he won the competition for the Arts Building (1921–6; for illustration see Auckland), University of Auckland, and in ...

Article

Geoffrey R. Edwards

(b Melbourne, Feb 9, 1929; d New York, April 19, 2005).

Australian sculptor and designer, active in the USA. He studied aeronautical engineering and later industrial design at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, but left without finishing the course. From 1949 to 1953 he worked as an industrial designer, specializing in furniture. Marketed widely in Australia during these years, his furniture was distinguished by its simplicity. It was constructed with plain, undisguised materials such as steel rods, timber laminates, and cord; his tables, chairs, and shelving systems exercised a delight in linear and open structure that conveyed an impression of virtual weightlessness.

In his free time Meadmore began to produce sculptures, carving wooden shapes whose forms were similar to those of tensioned strings, and from 1950 to 1953 experimenting with mobiles. After extensive travel in 1953 in Europe, where he was particularly impressed by modern sculptures that he saw in Belgium, he produced his first large abstract sculptures in welded steel. Some of these, for example ...