1-16 of 16 results  for:

  • Sculpture and Carving x
  • 1300–1400 x
  • Painting and Drawing x
  • Architecture and Urban Planning x
Clear all

Article

French, 14th century, male.

Active in Picardy during the 14th century.

Born in Picardy.

Painter, sculptor.

In 1344 Enguerrand Aquosse was an architect and expert in Noyon.

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time.

Astrology developed into a scientific branch of learning in ancient Greece, but because of the opposition of the Church Fathers it was transmitted to early medieval Europe in only fragmentary form in technically unsophisticated textbooks and popular divinatory genres. Literary and scientific texts provided more general ideas about the nature and attributes of the planets which were influential on later iconography. The first significant astrological images appear in 11th-century illustrated astronomical texts (e.g. London, BL, Cotton MS. Tiberius BV), which were acquired and produced by monasteries to aid with time-keeping and the construction of the Christian calendar....

Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Active in Gubbio.

Architect, sculptor, painter (?).

In 1338, Bartolo di Cristoforo di Francesco worked in the church of S Maria dei Laici in Gubbio.

Article

Rosa Alcoy

[Castayls, Jaime]

(b ?Berga; fl 1345–79).

Catalan sculptor, painter and architect. A citizen of Barcelona, he must have been trained among Italians, but in a school that was acquainted with developments in France and receptive to Sienese influences—possibly Pisa or Naples. Mallorcan painting—especially manuscript illumination, which was influenced by Pisan art—and the work of the Master of the San Michele in Borgo Pulpit (a Pisan sculptor who worked on the shrine of S Eulalia, 1327–39, in Barcelona Cathedral) also constituted important formative influences on his style. He married the daughter of Ferrer Bassa and was associated with the Bassa workshop in a commission for works for Saragossa in 1346. Like Ferrer Bassa, he was responsible for introducing Italianizing elements into Catalonia.

No authenticated paintings by Jaume Cascalls survive, however, and he is now known primarily for his sculpture, notably for the signed alabaster retable of the Virgin (c. 1345; 2.07×3.35 m) in S María, Cornellà del Conflent, which shows Italian characteristics in the treatment of continuous narrative and in the technique, in which some areas are deliberately left unfinished for expressive effect. At about this time, Jaume worked in Perpignan for the Aragonese crown. By ...

Article

Dorothy Gillerman

(fl 1292–1352).

French architect, painter, and sculptor. He is first mentioned in the Parisian tax rolls of 1292, and a document of 1304 refers to him as ‘peintre du roi’. Between 1308 and 1328 he was employed as painter and architect at various royal châteaux, but his most important commission involved the additions ordered by Philip IV to his palace on the Ile de la Cité in Paris. Guérout concluded that Evrard designed the portal of the Galerie des Merciers with facing statues of Philip IV and his minister, Enguerrand de Marigny (both destr.), and that he was in charge of the decoration in the Grand’Salle, which ran parallel to the river. The great vaulted hall was the setting for a series of life-size painted statues of the Kings of France (destr.), an ensemble that reflected Philip’s programmatic image of the French monarchy. The statues themselves, doubtless planned if not all executed by Evrard, impressed contemporaries with their ‘lifelike’ aspect. Evrard may have been a specialist in creating donor images that preserved the convincing presence, if not an actual likeness, of their subjects. He continued to supervise the work at the Palais de la Cité under ...

Article

French, 13th – 14th century, male.

Active in Paris.

Born c. 1270.

Painter, sculptor, architect.

Evrard d'Orléans bore the title of painter to the king although he worked for a number of different nobles at the French court, including the Countess of Burgundy, Mahaut of Artois. He worked on the Hôtel d'Artoise in Paris and at the abbey church of Maubuisson near Pontoise. He is thought to have died in ...

Article

Danielle B. Joyner

From the time John Cassian established the first female foundation in Marseille in ad 410, monastic women lived in varying states of enclosure and were surrounded by diverse images and objects that contributed to their devotion, education and livelihood. The first rule for women, written in 512 by St Caesarius of Arles, emphasized their strict separation from men and the world, as did the Periculoso, a directive issued by Pope Boniface VIII (reg 1294–1303) in 1298. Various architectural solutions developed throughout the Middle Ages to reconcile the necessities of enclosure with the access required by male clerics to celebrate Mass and provide pastoral care. Nuns’ choirs, where the women would gather for their daily prayers, were often constructed as discreet spaces in the church, which allowed women to hear or see the Mass without interacting with the cleric, as in the 10th-century choir in the eastern transept gallery at St Cyriakus in Gernrode, Germany. In some Cistercian examples, the nuns’ choir appeared at the west end of the nave. Dominican and Franciscan architecture was largely varied. Double monasteries, which housed men and women, also required careful construction. A 7th-century text describing the church of St Brigida in ...

Article

Italian, 13th – 14th century, male.

Born c. 1245, in Pisa; died between 1314 and 1319.

Sculptor, architect.

Giovanni Pisano, the son and pupil of Nicola Pisano, is first documented while working with his father on the pulpit in Siena Cathedral during the period 1265–1268. Following the completion of this pulpit there is a gap of nearly a decade, about which nothing is known with certainty. He is then listed alongside his father again, this time in Perugia, where they executed the ...

Article

Italian, 14th – 15th century, male.

Born 1367, in Florence; died 1446, in Florence.

Painter, sculptor, architect.

The son of Arrigo di Ginocolo Giuochi, Giuliano was more a sculptor and architect than a painter. In 1390, he was commissioned to design a monument for Pietro Farnese in Florence cathedral. From ...

Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Died 5 July 1398, in Milan.

Miniaturist, sculptor, draughtsman.

Lombard School.

From 1389, Giovannino de' Grassi worked for Milan Cathedral as a sculptor and architect. All that survives of the numerous and varied works he did is a sacristy fountain with a low relief of ...

Article

French, 14th century, male.

Active in Paris.

Painter, sculptor, architect.

Jean de Saint-Romain worked for the Louvre, from 1365 to 1370, with Raymond du Temple. His works include statues of Charles V the Wise, The Duke of Anjou, St John the Baptist and a Virgin...

Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Died 1365.

Painter, fresco artist, sculptor, architect. Religious subjects.

Nardo di Cione was probably the father of Mariotto di Nardo, and definitely the elder brother of Orcagna Andrea di Cione. He is mentioned in Florence, where he worked with his brother on the Strozzi chapel in the church of S Maria Novella, executing scenes on ...

Article

Orcagna  

Italian, 14th century, male.

Active between 1344 and 1368.

Born between 1315 and 1320, in Florence; died 1368, in Florence.

Painter, sculptor, architect.

Florentine School.

Orcagna was first and foremost a painter and sculptor, and never referred to himself as an architect. Indeed, he did not complete any architectural ensembles in their entirety. He carried out both interior and exterior decorations, as well as participating in preparatory plans, most notably those for Florence Cathedral. With his brother he oversaw the works of Orvieto Cathedral between ...

Article

German, 14th century, male.

Died c. 1391.

Painter, sculptor, architect.

Article

Pomposa  

Charles B. McClendon

Italian former Benedictine abbey near the mouth of the Po River and 45 km north of Ravenna in the province of Emilia Romagna. Although first documented in ad 874, a monastic settlement probably existed there at least two centuries earlier. Pomposa rose to prominence in the 10th and 11th centuries through the support of the Holy Roman emperors. Over the course of the 14th century, a notable series of wall paintings in three different buildings were sponsored despite the monastery’s waning fortunes. In 1663 the monastic community was suppressed by papal decree. The site was secularized in 1802 and became property of the Italian state after 1870.

The proportions of the wooden-roofed basilican church, along with the polygonal outline of its main apse, reflect influence from nearby Ravenna and Classe and suggest a date in the 8th or 9th century. An elaborate pavement of mosaic and cut stone (opus sectile...

Article

David Young Kim

[Fr.: ‘rebirth’]

Term generally used to designate a historical period of cultural revival. In art historical scholarship, the Renaissance refers to the pivotal era of artistic production in creative imitation of classical models and values which began in the late 14th century in Italy and spread over the course of the 16th century throughout Europe and beyond. Historiographically, the concept of the Renaissance has defined itself against the Middle Ages (see Carolingian art, §I) with its negative connotations of ignorance, economic decline, and, in the arts, lack of naturalism and depth. Even so, Romanesque , Gothic, and Byzantine (see Early Christian and Byzantine art) formats, iconography, and styles established in previous centuries continued to provide prototypes for Renaissance artists such that art making in this period can be seen as an act of exchange and interaction with the medieval past. While drawing upon medieval strategies and attitudes towards images and image-making, Renaissance artists placed emphasis on certain modes of composition, aesthetic effect, and self-conception. In addition to the renewed interest in antiquity, these included the formulation of perspective, naturalistic depiction of the human figure and landscape, emphasis on proportional architectural forms, and the growing self-consciousness of artists as prominent creative individuals and intellectuals. More than a hermetically sealed epoch with clearly defined geographic and temporal boundaries, the Renaissance and its art continues to raise questions about the possibilities of representation, art making, and selfhood which confront artists and scholars in the present day: how do images forge a relation with the physical remains of the past, and, by extension, ideas about heritage, political legitimacy, and the state? How do reproducible media impact notions of authorship and originality? What role do works of art and representational strategies play in the individual and collective understanding of the world, in both temporal and spiritual dimensions?...