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Maria Concepción García Sáiz

(b Zamora, c. 1680; d Mexico City, 1748).

Spanish architect and sculptor, active in Mexico. Between 1702 and 1703 he worked in Madrid as a designer of stage machinery, later moving to Andalusia, where he produced the principal altar of the sacristy of Seville Cathedral in the Rococo style, completed in 1709 (destr. 1824). Ceán Bermúdez described it as having ‘four large estípites, pilasters, lots of angels prankishly tumbling about and a cornice broken and interrupted in a thousand places with tortuous projections and recessions, the whole topped by a huge arch’. In 1714 Balbás also carried out the plan for the choir-stalls of the church of S Juan in Marchena, carved by Juan de Valencia, equally playful in style and similarly using estípites. The same year he designed the lectern in the same church, though this was not constructed until 1735.

Around 1718 Balbás went to Mexico City to take charge of the ‘retablo del Perdón’ in the Chapel of the Kings at the Metropolitan Cathedral, using the ...

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Baroque  

Gauvin Bailey and Jillian Lanthier

Term used to describe one of the first genuinely global styles of art and architecture in the Western canon, extending from its birthplace in Bologna and Rome to places as far-flung as France, Sweden, Russia, Latin America, colonial Asia (Goa, Macao), and Africa (Mozambique, Angola), even manifesting itself in hybrid forms in non-European cultures such as Qing China (the Yuanming yuan pleasure gardens of the Qianlong Emperor) or Ottoman Turkey (in a style often called Türk Barok). The Baroque also embraced a very wide variety of art forms, from the more traditional art historical media of painting, sculpture, and architecture to public spectacles, fireworks, gardens, and objects of everyday use, often combining multiple media into a single object or space in a way that blurred traditional disciplinary boundaries. More so than the Renaissance and Mannerist stylistic movements which preceded it, Baroque was a style of the people as well as one of élites, and scholars are only recently beginning to explore the rich material culture of the Baroque, from chapbooks (Italy) and votive paintings (central Europe and Latin America) to farm furniture (Sweden) and portable oratories (Brazil). Although its precise chronological boundaries will probably always be a matter of dispute, the Baroque era roughly covers the period from the 1580s to the early 18th century when, in places such as France and Portugal, the ...

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Cynthia Lawrence

[Jean-François]

(b Mechelen, c. 1650; d Mechelen, 1734).

Flemish sculptor and architect. He was a pupil of Lucas Faydherbe, from whom he absorbed the influence of Rubens. Boeckstuyns became a master in the Mechelen Guild of St Luke in 1680 but may have continued to collaborate with Faydherbe. Among his commissions for Mechelen churches are three wooden confessionals with allegorical figures (1690) and the wooden gable (1712) for Faydherbe’s earlier high altar for the basilica of Onze-Lieve-Vrouw van Hanswijk and numerous works for the Begijnhof Church, including the north interior portal (c. 1700), the communion rails (1710) and the wooden confessionals (also attributed to Faydherbe). In 1690 he collaborated with the Mechelen sculptors Frans Langhemans and Adam Frans van der Meulen on the wooden high altar of Onze-Lieve-Vrouw-over-de-Dyle. Boeckstuyns was perhaps responsible for the wooden pulpit in St Rombouts (also attributed to Michiel van der Voort I) as well as the wooden tabernacle for the altar of the Holy Sacrament (...

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Germán Ramello Asensio

(b Valls, 1730; d Valls, 1786).

Catalan sculptor. His great-grandfather and grandfather, respectively Luis Bonifás (fl 1676; d 1697) and Luis Bonifás y Sastre (1683–1765), settled in Valls and founded an academy of architecture and sculpture. His younger brother, Francisco Bonifás y Masó (1735–1806), was also a sculptor. Luis Bonifás y Masó himself worked in a Baroque style for both the architecture of his retables and for his sculptural compositions, as can be seen in the high altar at Cubells (1764), in which the figure of St Peter recalls the work of Bernini. In the previous year, however, he had successfully applied for full admission to the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Fernando, Madrid, and submitted a Neo-classical alabaster relief of St Sebastian Succoured by St Irene (in situ), clearly demonstrating that the extended Baroque strain in his work was due either to his own preference or to the demands of his clients. ...

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Joaquín Bérchez

(b San Mateo, Castellón,?early 18th century; d Madrid, Feb 2, 1754).

Spanish sculptor and architect. In 1733 he was appointed city and diocesan architect for Cuenca, where he designed the town hall in 1734. He was subsequently summoned by the chapter of Murcia Cathedral in 1736 and appointed surveyor to the fabric and city architect. He directed works on the new façade of the cathedral (1736–49), which is really a retable in stone and decorative marbles, albeit on a monumental scale, and is scenographically designed to complement the townscape. Jacopo Vignola’s two-storey scheme for the façade of Il Gesù, Rome (see Rome, §V, 16, and figs 49 and 50), is the ultimate model, but it was modified by Bort to form a complex rhythm of fluid curves and powerful columnar projections. The wealth of fine detail recalls French Rococo—in particular Juste-Aurèle Meissonier’s design (1726) for St Sulpice, Paris—while exploiting the existing Renaissance elements of the building. The curved cresting of the façade, like an ornamental Spanish comb used to hold a mantilla in place, has a deep concave surface. Bort’s pupils executed this work, which recalls the expedients in Andrea Pozzo’s ...

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Camillo Semenzato

(b Belluno, July 20, 1662; d Belluno, Oct 25, 1732).

Italian sculptor and draughtsman. He worked almost exclusively in wood. His first teacher was his father, Jacopo Brustolon (d 1709), also a sculptor, and he then trained with the painter Agostino Ridolfi (1646–1727). In 1677 Andrea was sent to Venice to the workshop of Filippo Parodi, to whose elegance, dynamism and technical virtuosity he was always indebted, although he soon established his own style. Brustolon came from an alpine area that had a long tradition of craftsmanship in wood. His achievement was to transpose techniques that had been associated with everyday craftsmanship on to the highest artistic level.

Brustolon went to Rome, probably in 1679. In 1685 he signed a contract for the execution of the altar of the Souls in S Floriano at Pieve di Zoldo, which suggests that he was already settled in Belluno even while maintaining contacts with Venice. In 1695 he presented a model of a door (unexecuted) for the chapel of the Tesoro at the Santo in Padua, a chapel that had been designed by ...

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Spanish family of artists. Their most important work was executed between 1675 and 1750, when they created a decorative style known as Churrigueresque, which can be considered the culmination of the Spanish Baroque. After the death of Josep de Xuriguera, a carpenter and wood-carver from Barcelona, his son José Simón de Churriguera (‘the elder’; d 1679) became the stepson of José Ratés Dalmau, a sculptor and wood-carver also from Barcelona. They set up a workshop together in Madrid (c. 1662). In 1674 they were contracted to construct the altarpiece (destr. 1903; fragments in situ) of the hospital of Montserrat; this had large solomonic columns and profuse decoration that signalled the family style. Among José Simón’s five sons were (1) José Benito de Churriguera, (2) Joaquín de Churriguera and (3) Alberto de Churriguera. José Benito’s sons, Nicolás Churriguera and Jerónimo Churriguera (d 1731), were both trained as architects and wood-carvers in the Madrid workshop and continued their father’s work at the church (destr.) of the Colegio de S Tomás, Madrid. Of José Simón’s other grandsons (by his daughter, Mariana, and the sculptor ...

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J.-P. Esther

(b ?Brussels, 1647; d ?Brussels, 1708).

Flemish sculptor and architect. He became a master sculptor in Brussels in 1678. Under the direction of Lucas Faydherbe he collaborated on the decoration (1678) of the right-hand choir chapel in Onze-Lieve-Vrouw van de Zavelkerk, Brussels, which was being fitted out as a funerary chapel for Graf Lamoral of Thurn and Taxis. Cosyns was responsible for the marble statues, which he executed to a design by Mattheus van Beveren. A small ivory of an Infants’ Bacchanalia (Munich, Bayer. Nmus.) in the style of Lucas Faydherbe and Peter Scheemakers is also by his hand. After the bombardment of Brussels by the French (Aug 1695) during the War of the Grand Alliance, Cosyns worked on the restoration of the guild houses on the Grand-Place under the supervision of the municipal architect, Willem de Bruyn (1649–1719). Designs possibly by Cosyns include those for the gable (1697...

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Maria Ida Catalano

(b Rovetta, Bergamo, Aug 26, 1659; d Rovetta, July 25, 1734).

Italian sculptor, architect and furniture-maker. He was the eldest son of the sculptor and carver Grazioso Fantoni (1630–93) and trained in his father’s flourishing workshop, which played a leading part in the supply of church furnishings in Bergamo, Parma and the surrounding provinces. In 1674 documents record Andrea in Parma, but in 1675 he was at Edolo, where he is recorded as an apprentice in the workshop of Pietro Ramus (?1639–82), a sculptor active in Valcamonica. It is thought that around 1678 he went to Venice to work in the workshop of the Genoese sculptor Filippo Parodi, a pupil of Bernini and a friend of Pierre Puget. Certainly Fantoni’s work gives stylistic evidence of contacts with Genoese and Venetian circles. In 1679 he returned to Rovetta, taking part from the early 1680s in a process of extensive stylistic modernization in the family workshop. This change can be seen in the contrast between Grazioso’s carved and inlaid wooden decorations and furnishings in the first sacristy (...

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Charles Avery

(b Florence, April 25, 1652; d Florence, April 12, 1725).

Italian sculptor and architect. The foremost Florentine sculptor of the late Baroque period, he was first apprenticed to two painters successively but soon showed a greater propensity for sculpture. In 1673 he was sent by the young Grand Duke of Tuscany, Cosimo III de’ Medici, to study in the newly instituted Accademia Fiorentina in Rome. There he remained for three years, studying under Ercole Ferrata, a sculptor of the second Baroque generation, and Ciro Ferri, a painter who was a close follower of Pietro da Cortona. His precocious ability at this period is demonstrated in a terracotta relief of the Slaying of the Niobids (Florence, Mus. Opificio Pietre Dure & Lab. Rest. Opere A.); a marble relief of the Adoration of the Shepherds (St Petersburg, Hermitage); and a bronze relief of the Crucifixion (Florence, Pitti), until recently ascribed to the court sculptor of the day, Ferdinando Tacca. These early works established his characteristic style, a novel late Baroque manner that changed little throughout his career....

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Alison Luchs

(b Settignano, nr Florence, 1670; d Florence, 1736).

Italian sculptor, medallist, architect and festival designer. He was a leading figure in the generation of sculptors trained in Florence after the dissolution of the Accademia Fiorentina in Rome (1686). Taught by Carlo Marcellini and Giuseppe Piamontini, he worked under Giovanni Battista Foggini on sculpture for the Feroni Chapel in SS Annunziata, Florence (1691–3), and the nave of SS Michele e Gaetano (1694–6). His principal sculptures are marble works for the high altar of SS Annunziata (1704–6) and portraits. His statues of St Filippo Benizzi and St Giuliana Falconieri for the Annunziata altar, with their animated balance and restrained intensity, are among the best of their date in Florence. Several portrait busts and reliefs, with an unsparingly detailed realism tempered by coolly imperious expression, have been attributed to him. The basis for these attributions is the signed marble effigy of Baron Philipp Bertram Degenhard Joseph von Hochkirchen...

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Hannelore Hägele

[Khuon; Kuon]

Austrian family of master builders and sculptors. Coming from the Vorarlberg region, they also worked, during the 17th and 18th centuries, in Switzerland and Germany. Michael Kuen (b 1605/10; d 10 Sept 1686), the most distinguished of four master-builder brothers, built the parish church of Unserer Lieben Frauen Heimsuchung at Bildstein bei Schwarzach, near Bregenz. His son Johann Georg Kuen (b Bregenz, 22 March 1642; d Bregenz, 16 April 1691) was the architect of a number of important churches: for example, in Switzerland he completed the Benedictine abbey church at Einsiedeln (1674–8) and designed the Jesuit church in Solothurn (1680–88) and the Benedictine monastery church in Pfäfers (1688–93). Johann Georg was the father of Franz Anton Kuen (b Bregenz, 7 Aug 1679; d Weingarten, nr Ravensburg, 17 Aug 1742), who was the most important sculptor of the 18th century in Vorarlberg. He worked both in his native town of Bregenz and in Prague; during the 1720s and 1730s he was particularly noted for his work as a stone-carver in the Lake Constance region. He also worked in wood, stucco and terracotta. He produced the sculptural decoration for the façade of the Benedictine abbey church in Einsiedeln and for the Rathaus (...

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Cynthia Lawrence

(b Mechelen, March 18, 1661; dMechelen, c. 1720).

Flemish sculptor and architect. He was a pupil of Lucas Faydherbe, from whom he learnt the picturesque realism associated with Rubens’s workshop. He collaborated with the Mechelen sculptor Jan van der Steen in London before returning to Flanders and joining the Mechelen guild. Langhemans is best represented in Belgium by the works he executed for the church of St Rombout in Mechelen. The earliest is a naturalistic stone statue of St Libertus (1680) for the monument to Amati de Coriache; a dramatically gesticulating stone figure of St Mary Magdalene from the monument to Jan Baptiste and Bernard Alexander van der Zype (1701) exhibits similar tendencies. Conversely, the oak statue of the Virgin of Victory (1680), carved for the monastery of the Brothers of Charity at Kappelen, Antwerp, has a classicizing appearance, which became more pronounced in his work by c. 1700. In 1698–9 Langhemans collaborated with ...

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Alison Luchs

(b Florence, c. 1644; d Florence, June 22, 1713).

Italian sculptor, stuccoist and architect. After training in Florence as a goldsmith, he studied with the painter Felice Ficherelli. In 1671 he went to Rome, having been chosen for the Tuscan Accademia Granducale. He studied sculpture under Ercole Ferrata and Ciro Ferri, showing a predilection for modelling rather than the marble carving expected by his patron, Cosimo III de’ Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. In 1672 he won first prize at the Accademia di S Luca for a terracotta relief of Decaulion and Pirra. He modelled the angels (1673–4) for the ciborium at the Chiesa Nuova (S Maria in Vallicella), which was designed by Ferri and cast by Stefano Benamati, and a terracotta relief of the Fall of the Giants (1674), pendant to a Niobid relief by Giovanni Battista Foggini (both Florence, Mus. Opificio Pietre Dure). When recalled to Florence in 1676, he was working on a more than life-size marble bust of ...

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Elisabeth Kieven

(b Rome, Feb 10, 1702; d Rome, July 28, 1786).

Italian architect, sculptor, draughtsman and designer. He owed his career to the patronage of cardinals Alessandro Albani (see Albani family, §2) and Annibale Albani. Like the Marchionni family, the Albani family came from the Marches. Marchionni first trained as a sculptor, then studied architecture at the Accademia di S Luca in Rome under Filippo Barigioni, winning the first prize in 1728, his final year. Marchionni’s prizewinning drawings demonstrated his exceptional talent as a draughtsman, always far greater than his inspiration as an architect. Cardinal Alessandro Albani engaged him to build his villa in Anzio as early as 1728 and in 1734 commissioned Marchionni to design the façade of the collegiate church at Nettuno. Both are conventional works carrying the imprint of the Accademia, revealing a clear commitment to the past in their use of 17th-century architectural motifs. Marchionni worked as a sculptor between 1730 and 1748. His most interesting sculptural work is the tomb of ...

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Donatella Germanó Siracusa

(b Florence, May 13, 1666; d Rome, after 1739).

Italian sculptor, medallist, miniaturist and architect. He came from a family of craftsmen (his brother Cosimo Merlini (fl 1692–1736) was a silversmith of some repute) and, like his father, trained in the grand ducal workshops in Florence. He then worked for the Medici court. His emergence as a sculptor dates to c. 1692, with his two marble Angels for the Ferroni Chapel (Florence, SS Annunziata). In November 1694 he moved to Rome, where for about a year he was active as a medallist and miniaturist. For the altar in the chapel of St Ignatius in the church of Il Gesù, Rome, Merlini executed a bronze relief of St Peter Appearing to St Ignatius (1695–6), based on a drawing by Andrea Pozzo, and Two Putti Flanking a Cartouche (1697). His monument to the Marchesa Riccardi (c. 1700; Rome, S Giovanni dei Fiorentini), which demonstrates his fine abilities as a portrait artist in the manner of Lorenzo Ottoni, is the most significant work of his first stay in Rome. Returning to Florence in ...

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Flavia Ormond

(b Florence, c. 1685; d Rome, after 1740).

Italian sculptor, medallist and possible architect. A pupil in Florence of Giuseppe Piamontini, he was first active as a medallist; one of his earliest and most exquisite medals celebrated the visit of King Frederick IV of Denmark and Norway to Florence in 1708. On the obverse is a portrait of the King; on the reverse, a view of the city with a reclining river god personifying the Arno (Florence, Bargello). A medal of Conte Lorenzo Magalotti, dated 1712 (version, London, BM), has Apollo on the reverse, whose exaggerated sway in the hips is reflected in two later small bronzes (Rome, Pal. Corsini). There are also two medals of the Grand Duke Gian Gastone de’ Medici (before 1723 and 1731; both Florence, Bargello). Montauti’s careful characterizations in the portrait medals are reflected in his marble portrait busts. One, of Gian Gastone de’ Medici (c. 1724; Florence, Arcisp. S Maria Nuo.), emphasizes the ugly features of large nose, pouting lips and jutting chin by using a schematic treatment for the wig....