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Article

Jens Peter Munk

(b Copenhagen, Sept 11, 1743; d Frederiksdal, Copenhagen, June 4, 1809).

Danish painter, designer and architect. His paintings reveal both Neo-classical and Romantic interests and include history paintings as well as literary and mythological works. The variety of his subject-matter reflects his wide learning, a feature further evidenced by the broad range of his creative output. In addition to painting, he produced decorative work, sculpture and furniture designs, as well as being engaged as an architect. Successfully combining both intellectual and imaginative powers, he came to be fully appreciated only in the 1980s.

He studied at the Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi in Copenhagen (1764–72), and in 1767 he assisted Johan Edvard Mandelberg (1730–86) in painting the domed hall of the Fredensborg Slot with scenes from the Homeric epic the Iliad. In 1772 he was granted a five-year travelling scholarship from the Kunstakademi to study in Rome. During his Roman sojourn he extensively copied works of art from the period of antiquity up to that of the Carracci family. His friendships with the Danish painter Jens Juel, the Swedish sculptor Johan Tobias Sergel and the Swiss painter Johann Heinrich Fuseli placed him among artists who were in the mainstream of a widespread upheaval in European art. In these years Abildgaard developed both Neo-classical and Romantic tastes; his masterpiece of the period is ...

Article

Italian, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 24 July 1742, in Bedano; died 15 or 16 November 1839, in Milan.

Sculptor, designer of ornamental architectural features, draughtsman.

Studied initially at an atelier of sculpture in Parma, then at the academy there and in Rome. His fame as a designer of ornamental features spread rapidly and he was appointed to teach at the Milan academy in ...

Article

Angers  

Austrian, 18th century, male.

Painter.

Angers was of Bohemian origin and, according to Dlabacz, painted historical subjects and architecture. His portrait of the Bohemian sculptor Mathias von Braun was engraved by Johann Balzer.

Article

Italian, 18th century, male.

Born 1690, in Rome; died 1753, in Rome.

Architect, sculptor, draughtsman.

Barigioni built several public buildings in Rome, and sculpted the Statue of St Norbert and the Monument to Marie-Clémentine Sobieska for St Peter's. He was entrusted with the raised catafalques in St Peter's for the funerals of Popes Clement XI, Innocent XIII and Clement XII. He also designed the catafalque of the King of Poland, Augustus II, in the church of San Clemente in Rome. In the transept of Sant'Andrea delle Fratte, the chapel of S Francesco of Paola, rich in marble and bronze ornamentation, is also his work....

Article

Baroque  

Gauvin Bailey and Jillian Lanthier

Term used to describe one of the first genuinely global styles of art and architecture in the Western canon, extending from its birthplace in Bologna and Rome to places as far-flung as France, Sweden, Russia, Latin America, colonial Asia (Goa, Macao), and Africa (Mozambique, Angola), even manifesting itself in hybrid forms in non-European cultures such as Qing China (the Yuanming yuan pleasure gardens of the Qianlong Emperor) or Ottoman Turkey (in a style often called Türk Barok). The Baroque also embraced a very wide variety of art forms, from the more traditional art historical media of painting, sculpture, and architecture to public spectacles, fireworks, gardens, and objects of everyday use, often combining multiple media into a single object or space in a way that blurred traditional disciplinary boundaries. More so than the Renaissance and Mannerist stylistic movements which preceded it, Baroque was a style of the people as well as one of élites, and scholars are only recently beginning to explore the rich material culture of the Baroque, from chapbooks (Italy) and votive paintings (central Europe and Latin America) to farm furniture (Sweden) and portable oratories (Brazil). Although its precise chronological boundaries will probably always be a matter of dispute, the Baroque era roughly covers the period from the 1580s to the early 18th century when, in places such as France and Portugal, the ...

Article

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 21 June 1750, in Le Havre; died 15 April 1818, in Paris.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman, designer of ornamental architectural features. Allegorical subjects, portraits. Busts.

A pupil of Pajou, Beauvallet was given the task of creating reliefs to decorate the Salle des Gardes in the Château de Compiègne in ...

Article

Ingrid Sattel Bernardini

(b Gotha, Dec 27, 1725; d Vienna, March 23, 1806).

German sculptor, painter and architect. He was the son of a court gardener who worked first in Gotha and then in Württemberg. He was originally intended to become an architect; in 1747 Duke Charles-Eugene of Württemberg sent him to train in Paris where, under the influence of painters such as Charles-Joseph Natoire and François Boucher, he turned to painting. The eight-year period of study in Rome that followed prompted Beyer to devote himself to sculpture, as he was impressed by antique works of sculpture and was also influenced by his close contacts with Johann Joachim Winckelmann and his circle. He also served an apprenticeship with Filippo della Valle, one of the main representatives of the Neo-classical tendency in sculpture. In 1759 Beyer returned to Germany, to take part in the decoration of Charles-Eugene’s Neues Schloss in Stuttgart.

In Stuttgart Beyer made an important contribution to the founding and improvement of facilities for the training of artists, notably at the Akademie, and to manufacture in the field of arts and crafts, particularly at the ...

Article

German, 18th century, male.

Born 27 December 1725, in Gotha; died 23 March 1806, in Schönnbrunn, near Vienna.

Painter, sculptor, architect.

Wilhelm Beyer was sent to Paris by Duke Charles-Eugene of Württemberg to study architecture, but instead he acquired a taste for painting, which he went on to develop further in Italy (...

Article

Italian, 17th – 18th century, male.

Active in Venice.

Died 23 February 1729, in Modena.

Painter, sculptor, architect.

Tomasso Bezzi worked in Venice from 1689 and for Duke Rinaldo of Modena in 1700. His works include an Ecce Homo for Modena Cathedral and St Francis of Paola...

Article

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 12 March 1769, in Villefranche-de-Conflent (Pyrénées-Orientales); died 8 April 1825, in Perpignan.

Painter, sculptor, architect.

Only four paintings by Boher survive. He left descriptions of them, explaining that they represent the principal stages in the lives of Abdon and Sennen, the patron saints of Arles in Roussillon. Boher also sculpted statues for the churches of Perpignan, a ...

Article

Philippe Sorel

(b Chalon-sur-Saône, Aug 30, 1735; d Paris, Dec 9, 1814).

French sculptor, draughtsman and painter. He probably first trained in Chalon, under the sculptor Pierre Colasson (c. 1724–70); later he studied in Paris at the school of the Académie Royale, under Simon Challes. In 1766 he travelled to Italy, remaining there until 1770. The art of Raphael and his school and the Fontainebleau school influenced Boichet’s art (e.g. Agrippina Bearing Germanicus’s Ashes, Lille, Mus. B.-A.) from an early date by giving his work a Neo-classical character. Boichot next worked in Burgundy, where he was responsible for architecture, sculpture and paintings at the château of Verdun-sur-le-Doubs (destr.). He also produced decorative work for the salon of the Académie de Dijon, of which he was a member; for the refectory of the abbey of St Benigne, Dijon, he executed a painting of the Triumph of Temperance over Gluttony (Dijon, Mus. B.-A.). In Paris his studio was in the Passage Sandrier off the Chaussée d’Antin. Introduced by Augustin Pajou, he was approved (...

Article

Giuseppe Pavanello

(b Possagno, nr Treviso, Nov 1, 1757; d Venice, Oct 13, 1822).

Italian sculptor, painter, draughtsman, and architect. He became the most innovative and widely acclaimed Neo-classical sculptor. His development during the 1780s of a new style of revolutionary severity and idealistic purity led many of his contemporaries to prefer his ideal sculptures to such previously universally admired antique statues as the Medici Venus and the Farnese Hercules, thus greatly increasing the prestige of ‘modern’ sculpture. He was also much in demand as a portraitist, often combining a classicizing format with a naturalistic presentation of features.

Antonio Canova was the son of Pietro Canova (1735–61), a stonecutter of Possagno. He was brought up by his grandfather, Pasino Canova (1714–94), a mediocre sculptor who specialized in altars with statues and low reliefs in late Baroque style (e.g. Angels; Crespano, S Marco). In 1770 or 1771 Antonio was apprenticed to the sculptor Giuseppe Bernardi (d 1774) in Pagnano, near Asolo, later following him to Venice. After Bernardi’s death he worked for a few months in the studio of the sculptor ...

Article

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 4 February 1766, in Auberive (Haute-Marne); died 1828, in Chalon-sur-Saône.

Sculptor, painter. Portraits, architectural views.

Jacques François Carbillet founded the École de Dessin at Chalon-sur-Saône, and is thought to have been a relative of Charles-François Carbillet.

Chalon-sur-Saône: Portraits of Children...

Article

British, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1773, in Carlisle; died 1825, in Carlisle.

Watercolourist, draughtsman. Landscapes, architectural scenes.

Robert Carlyle was the son of a sculptor and made his name as an architectural and landscape painter. In 1792 he won a silver medal from the Society of Arts for his drawings of Carlisle Cathedral. He illustrated W. Hutchinson's ...

Article

Italian, 18th century, male.

Born 1736, in Verona; died 1791, in Venice.

Painter, sculptor, architect.

Active in Verona.

Article

French, 18th century, male.

Born 17 April 1731, in Aix-en-Provence; died 15 November 1788, in Paris.

Architect, sculptor, draughtsman, designer of ornamental architectural features. Decorative motifs. Furniture.

Gilles Cauvet, sculptor to Monsieur, the king's brother, banished the mannered style from interior decoration, preferring classical simplicity. He was director of the Académie de St-Luc in Paris, and organised the Exhibition of ...

Article

French, 18th century, male.

Born 2 March 1733, in Dijon; died 1 March 1803, in Paris.

Painter, sculptor. Figures, portraits, architectural views.

This artist learned his craft under the guidance of his father, Jean Baptiste Gille Colson, and was in the personal service of the Duke de Bouillon for 40 years. He was an architect as well as an artist: he built a temple on the Île d'Amour and sculpted the decorative figures for it himself. In addition, he extended considerably the gardens of Hebe. Very much a man of letters, he was a member of the Dijon Académie, the Athénée des Arts and the Société des Sciences, Lettres et Arts in Paris. He gave free public lessons in perspective in ...

Article

French, 17th – 18th century, male.

Active from 1641 to 1700.

Sculptor, painter, architect.

Marc du Rufflay sculpted the altars of the churches of Lamballe and Plévenon.

Article

French, 18th century, male.

Born 16 July 1682; died 7 June 1763.

Painter, sculptor, architect.

The son of Claude Dubreuil, Jean Baptiste Dubreuil worked with him on the restoration of the door of Lyons town hall, and decorated several rooms there.

Article

Italian, 17th – 18th century, male.

Born 1672, in Bologna; died 18 February 1724, in Cento.

Painter, sculptor, architect.

Paolo Antonio Figatelli was the son of Giuseppe Maria Figatelli. He is known principally for his portraits, usually of saints. He was also an architect. A series of drawings by him is in the Uffizi in Florence....