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Article

German, 15th century, male.

Active in Nuremberg.

Stonemason, sculptor.

Nuremberg School.

Heinrich Abschrot became a citizen of Nuremberg in 1415.

Article

Flemish, 15th century, male.

Activec.1496.

Painter, designer of ornamental architectural features.

Flemish School.

Adrian van Peghem painted coats of arms and banners.

Article

Swiss, 15th – 16th century, male.

Active in Fribourg from 1498 to 1509.

Sculptor, engraver (stone), architect.

Gylian Aetterli worked in the funerary chapel of St Nicholas in Fribourg, and in 1501 sculpted the baptismal font for the church at Guin in the canton of Fribourg....

Article

Italian, 15th century, male.

Born 1418, in Florence; died before 1498, in Perugia.

Sculptor, architect. Religious subjects.

Florentine School, Perugian School.

The son of the weaver Antonio di Duccio, Agostino d'Antonio di Duccio produced works in marble and terracotta of the Della Robbia type. His earliest known works are four low reliefs in Modena Cathedral. While living in Florence in ...

Article

Paul Davies and David Hemsoll

(b Genoa, Feb 14, 1404; d Rome, April 1472).

Italian architect, sculptor, painter, theorist and writer. The arts of painting, sculpture and architecture were, for Alberti, only three of an exceptionally broad range of interests, for he made his mark in fields as diverse as family ethics, philology and cryptography. It is for his contribution to the visual arts, however, that he is chiefly remembered. Alberti single-handedly established a theoretical foundation for the whole of Renaissance art with three revolutionary treatises, on painting, sculpture and architecture, which were the first works of their kind since Classical antiquity. Moreover, as a practitioner of the arts, he was no less innovative. In sculpture he seems to have been instrumental in popularizing, if not inventing, the portrait medal, but it was in architecture that he found his métier. Building on the achievements of his immediate predecessors, Filippo Brunelleschi and Michelozzo di Bartolomeo, he reinterpreted anew the architecture of antiquity and introduced compositional formulae that have remained central to classical design ever since....

Article

Italian, 15th century, male.

Born 14 February 1404, in Genoa, illegitimate son of a noble Florentine banking family (in exile at the time of his birth); died 1472.

Architect, theorist, painter, sculptor.

Leon Battista Alberti was a leading scholar and architect of the fifteenth century. After receiving his doctorate in canon and civil law from Bologna University in ...

Article

Samo Štefanac

[Aleši, Andrija; Alexii, Andreas; Andrea di Niccolò da Durazzo]

(b Dürres, c. 1425; d Split, 1504).

Dalmatian sculptor and architect of Albanian birth. Although he is recorded in 1435 at Zadar as a pupil of Marco di Pietro da Troia, his most important artistic influence was the Late Gothic style of Giorgio da Sebenico, with whom he worked in 1445 on Šibenik Cathedral and in 1452 at Ancona on the Loggia dei Mercanti. Between 1448 and 1460 Alessi also controlled his own workshop at Split and Rab. In 1466 he began work on his masterpiece, the baptistery at Trogir, which was finished in 1467. The chapel is rectangular in plan, covered with a barrel vault with acute angled coffers; its richly decorated interior is an eclectic blend of Late Gothic and Renaissance elements. The sculpture shares these characteristics: the Baptism of Christ over the entrance, with its elongated figures and complex drapery patterns, derives from Giorgio da Sebenico’s mannered style, while St Jerome in the Desert...

Article

Italian, 15th century, male.

Active in Trento.

Sculptor.

Alessio da Verona was also an architect.

Article

Italian, 15th – 16th century, male.

Born in Durazzo in Albania; died 1504, in Spalato.

Sculptor, architect.

Andreas Alexii was the son of slaves and spent his whole life in Dalmatia, mainly in Spalato. He worked principally on the restoration and repair of chapels. Among his works are the chapel of St Catherine in the church of St Dominic in Spalato, the chapel of St Jerome and St Nicholas in the church of St John the Baptist (no longer in existence) in the town of Arbe on the island of the same name, and the Gothic baptismal chapel in the church in Arbe. In ...

Article

Algarve  

Kirk Ambrose

Southern-most region of mainland Portugal. Its name is derived from ‘the West’ in Arabic. This region has relatively few medieval buildings: devastating earthquakes in 1722 and 1755 contributed to these losses, though many buildings were deliberately destroyed during the Middle Ages. For example, in the 12th century the Almoravids likely razed a pilgrimage church, described in Arabic sources, at the tip of the cape of S Vicente. Mosques at Faro, Silves and Tavira, among others, appear to have been levelled to make room for church construction after the Reconquest of the region, completed in 1249. Further excavations could shed much light on this history.

Highlights in the Algarve include remains at Milreu of a villa with elaborate mosaics that rank among the most substantial Roman sites in the region. The site further preserves foundations of a basilica, likely constructed in the 5th century, and traces of what may be a baptistery, perhaps added during the period of Byzantine occupation in the 6th and 7th centuries. The period of Islamic rule, from the 8th century through to the 13th, witnessed the construction of many fortifications, including examples at Aljezur, Loulé and Salir, which were mostly levelled by earthquakes. Silves, a city with origins in the Bronze Age, preserves a substantial concentration of relatively well-preserved Islamic monuments. These include a bridge, carved inscriptions, a castle, cistern and fortified walls, along which numerous ceramics have been excavated. Most extant medieval churches in Algarve date to the period after the Reconquest. These tend to be modest in design and small in scale, such as the 13th-century Vera Cruz de Marmelar, built over Visigothic or Mozarabic foundations. The relatively large cathedrals at Silves and at Faro preserve substantial portions dating to the 13th century, as well as fabric from subsequent medieval campaigns. Renaissance and Baroque churches and ecclesiastical furnishings can be found throughout Algarve....

Article

Antonio Fernández-Puertas and D. Fairchild Ruggles

(Granada)

The palaces of the Alhambra and Generalife in Granada, Spain, form the most important architectural ensemble to survive from the Nasrid period (1232–1492). Art created under the Nasrid dynasty in the Iberian Peninsula (see Islamic art, §II, 6(iv)(e) ) provided the spark of originality for art in the neighbouring Christian kingdoms and for Marinid and Abd al-Wādid art in Morocco and Algeria. By the 9th century the citadel on the Sabīka spur of the Sierra Nevada overlooking Granada was called al-ḥamrā’ (Arab.: ‘the red’) because its ageing white stuccoed walls, probably belonging to a Visigothic fortress, were already stained red with ferruginous dust. In the 11th century the Zirids built defensive walls that linked this fortress with Albaycín Hill to the north and Torres Bermejas to the south. In 1238 the first Nasrid sultan, Muhammad I, organized the supply of water by canal, which allowed the building of a royal city on the Sabīka from the 13th to the 15th century. Enlarged and embellished by his descendants, the walled Alhambra city comprised the Alcazaba (...

Article

Richard Schofield and Janice Shell

(b Pavia, c. 1447; d Milan, Aug 28, 1522).

Italian sculptor and architect. He was principally active in Bergamo, Cremona, Milan and Pavia. His professional success, in terms of the architectural and sculptural commissions and official appointments that he received, was far greater than that of any of his contemporaries in Lombardy in the late 15th century, including Bramante. Amadeo’s influence in both fields, for example in his use of all’antica ornament of local origin, was considerable.

He was trained as a sculptor and evidently apprenticed to Francesco Solari (fl 1464–71) in Milan and at the Certosa di Pavia (see Pavia, §2, (i)). In 1466 Amadeo assisted in the decoration of the large cloister of the Certosa and was apparently responsible for the terracotta lavabo in the small cloister. His first signed work, directly influenced by the Late Gothic style of Solari, is the carved portal in the small cloister with a lunette of the ...

Article

Italian, 15th century, male.

Born near Pavia.

Painter, sculptor (?).

Protasio Amadeo was the brother of the architect and sculptor Giovanni Antonio Amadeo of Lombardy. Like his brother he was born in the mid-15th century and was the son of a farmer, Aloisio Amadeo, who lived on the outskirts of Pavia. Protasio trained as a painter and worked mainly for his brother, who was better known....

Article

French, 14th – 15th century, male.

Active in Montpellier.

Born c. 1330, near Béziers.

Architect, sculptor.

Durant Amilhau was the town architect of Montpellier from 1360 until his death in 1418.

Article

Italian, 15th century, male.

Born 1384, in Florence; died 1450, in Hungary.

Sculptor (wood), architect.

Manetto Ammannatini was summoned to Hungary around 1409 and worked there for King Sigismund's marshal and for the king himself on the construction of a number of churches and palaces....

Article

Article

Italian, 15th – 16th century, male.

Active in Carona.

Sculptor, architect.

Andrea da Carona and his brother Antonio were employed in the construction of the Palazzo delle Compere in Genoa from 1490 to 1514. They were sons of the master Carlo da Carona.

Article

Italian, 15th century, male.

Active in Rome at the end of the 15th century.

Sculptor, architect.

In 1470, Andrea da Firenze assisted in the construction of the Vatican basilica. In 1498 and 1499, by order of Pope Alexander VI, he constructed the della Sapienza palace (University) near S Eustachio, working in collaboration with master Sante Fiorentino. He appears to be the same as the artist Andrea who, in ...

Article

Italian, 15th century, male.

Active in Bologna.

Sculptor, architect.

Bolognese School.

Andrea di Guido da Fiesole lived in Bologna. In 1403 he carved a number of tombs, notably those of the lawyers Roberto and Ricardo da Saliceto for the cloister of S Martino. In 1412...

Article

Italian, 15th century, male.

Architect, sculptor.

In 1461, Andrea di Michele worked in collaboration with Desiderio and Giuliano di Leonardo on the design of a chapel to house the image of the Byzantine Madonna of Orvieto. In the 17th century this chapel was demolished and the Madonna is now kept in the cathedral's Capella Nuova. It is thought that, under the name of Andrea di Michele da Roma, the artist also played an active part in work on St Mark's palace under Paul II....