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Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Active in Orvieto in 1345.

Sculptor, designer of ornamental architectural features.

Article

Matthew Woodworth

(b Walsingham, Norfolk; d Ely, Cambs, 1363).

English cleric, architect, and goldsmith. Already an accomplished goldsmith when first recorded as monk of Ely Cathedral in 1314, Walsingham was appointed sub-prior of Ely in 1316, sacrist in 1321, and served as prior from 1341 until his death. As sacrist, Alan of Walsingham was responsible for the building fabric, particularly finances and general repair. He also supervised new construction projects, organized and paid the labour force, and arranged for delivery of materials. During his tenure, Walsingham oversaw the building of a new sacristy (1322–5), the spacious Lady Chapel (1321–49), Prior Crauden’s Chapel (1322–8), guest quarters (1330), and Bishop Hotham’s partly remodelled choir (1338–50). Walsingham’s most ambitious project at Ely was the soaring Octagon and central lantern (1322–49), built to replace the original Romanesque crossing tower after it collapsed in 1322. Surviving Sacrist Rolls hold Alan himself responsible for the Octagon’s design, specifying that he measured out the locations of its eight supports, secured their foundations, and carried the walls up to their full height. Scholarship is divided as to Walsingham’s precise role in the Octagon’s final appearance, but, whether as architect or industrious layman, he brought to completion one of the most innovative and spatially complex structures of the 14th century....

Article

Lucília Verdelho da Costa

Cistercian abbey in Portugal. The abbey, dedicated to S Maria, was founded as part of the policy of repopulation and territorial improvement of the first king of Portugal, Alfonso I (reg 1139–85), who in 1152 granted a large area of land to St Bernard of Clairvaux by a charter known as the Carta dos Coutos (Lisbon, Arquiv. N.). Work on the monastery started in 1158 and adhered to the rigid precepts of the Order. Although the exterior was extended and altered in the 17th and 18th centuries, especially the Baroque façade of the church, the interior essentially preserves its original Early Gothic appearance.

W. Beckford: Recollections of an Excursion to the Monasteries of Alcobaça and Batalha (London, 1835/R 1972) M. V. Natividade: Ignez de Castro e Pedro o Cru perante a iconografia dos seus túmulos (Lisbon, 1910) E. Korrodi: Alcobaça: Estudo histórico, arqueológico e artístico da Real Abadia de Alcobaça...

Article

French, 14th century, male.

Active in France at the beginning of the 14th century.

Sculptor, designer of ornamental architectural features.

In 1320 Alexandre worked on the decoration of the cathedral of Sens.

Article

Algarve  

Kirk Ambrose

Southern-most region of mainland Portugal. Its name is derived from ‘the West’ in Arabic. This region has relatively few medieval buildings: devastating earthquakes in 1722 and 1755 contributed to these losses, though many buildings were deliberately destroyed during the Middle Ages. For example, in the 12th century the Almoravids likely razed a pilgrimage church, described in Arabic sources, at the tip of the cape of S Vicente. Mosques at Faro, Silves and Tavira, among others, appear to have been levelled to make room for church construction after the Reconquest of the region, completed in 1249. Further excavations could shed much light on this history.

Highlights in the Algarve include remains at Milreu of a villa with elaborate mosaics that rank among the most substantial Roman sites in the region. The site further preserves foundations of a basilica, likely constructed in the 5th century, and traces of what may be a baptistery, perhaps added during the period of Byzantine occupation in the 6th and 7th centuries. The period of Islamic rule, from the 8th century through to the 13th, witnessed the construction of many fortifications, including examples at Aljezur, Loulé and Salir, which were mostly levelled by earthquakes. Silves, a city with origins in the Bronze Age, preserves a substantial concentration of relatively well-preserved Islamic monuments. These include a bridge, carved inscriptions, a castle, cistern and fortified walls, along which numerous ceramics have been excavated. Most extant medieval churches in Algarve date to the period after the Reconquest. These tend to be modest in design and small in scale, such as the 13th-century Vera Cruz de Marmelar, built over Visigothic or Mozarabic foundations. The relatively large cathedrals at Silves and at Faro preserve substantial portions dating to the 13th century, as well as fabric from subsequent medieval campaigns. Renaissance and Baroque churches and ecclesiastical furnishings can be found throughout Algarve....

Article

Antonio Fernández-Puertas and D. Fairchild Ruggles

(Granada)

The palaces of the Alhambra and Generalife in Granada, Spain, form the most important architectural ensemble to survive from the Nasrid period (1232–1492). Art created under the Nasrid dynasty in the Iberian Peninsula (see Islamic art, §II, 6(iv)(e) ) provided the spark of originality for art in the neighbouring Christian kingdoms and for Marinid and Abd al-Wādid art in Morocco and Algeria. By the 9th century the citadel on the Sabīka spur of the Sierra Nevada overlooking Granada was called al-ḥamrā’ (Arab.: ‘the red’) because its ageing white stuccoed walls, probably belonging to a Visigothic fortress, were already stained red with ferruginous dust. In the 11th century the Zirids built defensive walls that linked this fortress with Albaycín Hill to the north and Torres Bermejas to the south. In 1238 the first Nasrid sultan, Muhammad I, organized the supply of water by canal, which allowed the building of a royal city on the Sabīka from the 13th to the 15th century. Enlarged and embellished by his descendants, the walled Alhambra city comprised the Alcazaba (...

Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Active in Sienac.1363.

Stonemason.

Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Sculptor.

Ambrogio di Goro was the son of the sculptor and architect Goro (mentioned as an assistant to Niccolo Pisano in Siena) and worked in the Siena region. He was also an architect in his own right.

Article

French, 14th century, male.

Active in Poitiers, in 1383.

Sculptor, designer of ornamental architectural features.

Guillaume Ameil worked in Poitiers at the Maubergeon Tower and the Palace of Duke Jean of Berry in 1383.

Article

French, 14th – 15th century, male.

Active in Montpellier.

Born c. 1330, near Béziers.

Architect, sculptor.

Durant Amilhau was the town architect of Montpellier from 1360 until his death in 1418.

Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Of Sienese origin; died c. 1361.

Architect, sculptor.

In 1360, Andrea di Cecco di Rinaldo succeeded Orcagna as chief architect on the construction of Orvieto Cathedral.

Article

Italian, 13th – 14th century, male.

Active in Sienac.1300.

Architect, sculptor.

Andrea di Ventura is referred to in a document as having contributed to the construction of the choir of Siena Cathedral towards the end of the 13th century.

Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Born c. 1290, in Pontedera; died between 26 August 1348 and 19 July 1349, in Orvieto (Umbria).

Sculptor, goldsmith, architect.

As the son of the goldsmith Ugolino Nini, it is likely that Andrea Pisano da Pontedera started by learning his father's trade. However, nothing is known of his early years except that he appears to have joined the studio of Lorenzo Maitani of Orvieto. From ...

Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Sculptor.

Andreolo was chief architect at Padua.

Article

French, 14th century, male.

Active during the second half of the 14th century.

Sculptor.

Nominated court sculptor, Pierre Anguerrand worked under the direction of the architect Raymond du Temple on the great staircase of the Louvre.

Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Active in the middle of the 14th century.

Sculptor, designer of ornamental architectural features.

Around 1317, Antonio di Lorenzo worked at Orvieto Cathedral.

Article

Flemish, 14th century, male.

Of Flemish origin.

Sculptor, designer of ornamental architectural features.

Flemish School.

Between 1356 and 1357 Henry d'Apeghehem was working at the Château d'Escaudoeuvres near Cambrai, France.

Article

French, 14th century, male.

Active in Picardy during the 14th century.

Born in Picardy.

Painter, sculptor.

In 1344 Enguerrand Aquosse was an architect and expert in Noyon.

Article

Flemish, 14th century, male.

Sculptor, designer of ornamental architectural features.

Flemish School.

In 1356 Thomas d'Ardenbourck was working at the castle of Escaudoeuvres near Cambrai. He may be the same person as Thomas of Lembourck who lived at the same time.

Article

French, 14th century, male.

Sculptor.

Arnaud de Solier is mentioned as dean of the guild of painters of Montpellier from 1362 to 1398. He was also an architect.