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Claude Laroche

(b Paris, Nov 9, 1812; d Chatou, Aug 2, 1884).

French architect and restorer. He was the son of a Neo-classical architect of the same name (1783–1868), who was a pupil of Charles Percier and architect to the département of Charente. The younger Paul Abadie began studying architecture in 1832 by joining the atelier of Achille Leclère and then entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1835. While he was following this classical training, he participated in the rediscovery of the Middle Ages by going on archaeological trips and then, from 1844, in his capacity as attaché to the Commission des Monuments Historiques. He undertook his first restoration work at Notre-Dame de Paris, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste-Antoine Lassus and Viollet-le-Duc. Abadie was appointed deputy inspector at Notre-Dame in 1845, and in 1848, when the department responsible for diocesan buildings was created, he was appointed architect to the dioceses of Périgueux, Angoulême and Cahors. He subsequently completed about 40 restoration projects, mainly on Romanesque churches in Charente, in the Dordogne and the Gironde, and as a diocesan architect he was put in charge of two large cathedrals in his district: St Pierre d’Angoulême and St Front de Périgueux. In the former he undertook a huge programme of ‘completion’, returning to a stylistic unity that was in line with current episcopal policy (...

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Jeanne-Marie Horat-Weber

(b Winterthur, Nov 14, 1723; d Berne, Oct 17, 1786).

Swiss painter, draughtsman and engraver. In 1741 he moved to Berne, where he took drawing lessons with Johann Grimm (1675–1747), whose school of drawing he took over in 1747. He visited the Bernese Oberland with Emanuel Handmann, Christian Georg Schütz (1718–91) and Friedrich Wilhelm Hirt (1721–72) in 1759 and in the same year travelled to Paris with Adrian Zingg (1734–86). This was his only trip abroad, but it determined him to work exclusively as a landscape painter. After nine months he returned to Berne, where his landscape views became popular, particularly with foreign travellers, enamoured of ‘Nature’ and keen to retain souvenirs of their travels. He was one of the first artists to portray the beauties of the Swiss countryside; his favourite subjects were the Aare Valley and views of Swiss lakes (e.g. View of Erlach on the Lake of Biel; Berne, Kstmus.). He invented a technique known as the ...

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Jens Peter Munk

(b Copenhagen, Sept 11, 1743; d Frederiksdal, Copenhagen, June 4, 1809).

Danish painter, designer and architect. His paintings reveal both Neo-classical and Romantic interests and include history paintings as well as literary and mythological works. The variety of his subject-matter reflects his wide learning, a feature further evidenced by the broad range of his creative output. In addition to painting, he produced decorative work, sculpture and furniture designs, as well as being engaged as an architect. Successfully combining both intellectual and imaginative powers, he came to be fully appreciated only in the 1980s.

He studied at the Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi in Copenhagen (1764–72), and in 1767 he assisted Johan Edvard Mandelberg (1730–86) in painting the domed hall of the Fredensborg Slot with scenes from the Homeric epic the Iliad. In 1772 he was granted a five-year travelling scholarship from the Kunstakademi to study in Rome. During his Roman sojourn he extensively copied works of art from the period of antiquity up to that of the Carracci family. His friendships with the Danish painter Jens Juel, the Swedish sculptor Johan Tobias Sergel and the Swiss painter Johann Heinrich Fuseli placed him among artists who were in the mainstream of a widespread upheaval in European art. In these years Abildgaard developed both Neo-classical and Romantic tastes; his masterpiece of the period is ...

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Portuguese, 18th century, male.

Active in Lisbon at the beginning of the 18th century.

Died 1738, in Lisbon.

Painter, designer of ornamental architectural features.

Abreu's works in Lisbon include the ceilings of the Menino de Deus church and the vestibule of the church of Nossa Senhora da Graça....

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José Fernandes Pereira

(b Elvas, fl Elvas, 1753–9).

Portuguese architect and master builder. His earliest known works are the six side altars (black-veined marble, 1753) in the small 15th-century chapel of S Bento in Vila Viçosa, where all his work is to be found. They are carved in a characteristic Late Baroque manner. In 1754 he designed and directed the installation of the high choir at the church of S Agostinho, with a baluster and handrail in white, black and pink marble. Also in 1754 he took charge of the reconstruction of the Paços do Concelho, fending off plans to open the work to public tender and undertaking to adhere to approved designs. He resumed work at S Agostinho in 1758, replacing the old retable of the high altar, thought unworthy by Joseph I, with a new design of coloured marble. He may also have directed work on the façade of the Matriz de Portel (1741–59...

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German, 18th century, male.

Active still in 1810.

Born 1757, in Mompelgard.

Draughtsman, architect.

He furnished proof of remarkable aptitude for drawing while very young, such that at 14 he was enrolled for the academy of fine arts in Stuttgart. He was a brilliant student, and on ...

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German, 18th century, male.

Active in Munich at the beginning of the 18th century.

Sculptor. Architectural views.

Munich (Royal Collection): Façade of a House (drawing)

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British, 18th – 19th century, male.

Active at the end of the 18th and at the beginning of the 19th century.

Painter, engraver. Architectural views.

S. Acton lived in London between 1791 and 1802 and exhibited at the Royal Academy.

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French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1737, in Valenciennes; died 1820, in Valenciennes.

Sculptor.

Grégoire Adam is not mentioned in artists' records, but Gombert, the architect from Lille who built the Hôtel Merghelynck at Ypres, thought him fit to compete with the best artists of French Flanders in the ornamentation of this supreme expression of 18th-century art. He decorated one of the salons, installing in it medallions of ...

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French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Active at the beginning of the 19th century.

Engraver. Architectural views.

Jean Adam was a pupil of the older Sellier and of Van Mechel. He made the plates for Belidore's Hydraulic Architecture ( Architecture Hydraulique), for Carnot's Attack and Defence of Strongholds...

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British, 18th century, male.

Born 3 July 1728, in Kirkcaldy (Fife); died 3 March 1792, in London.

Draughtsman, watercolourist, engraver, architect. Landscapes, architectural views, interiors, ruins. Decorative models.

Robert Adam was the son of William Adam, a well-known Scottish architect. He initially trained in his father's practice in partnership with his bothers, John and James. Examples of his early architectural work include Hopetoun House in Lothian (c. ...

Article

(b Stockholm, Jan 3, 1716; d Stockholm, Feb 26, 1796).

Swedish architect. His father, Göran Josuae Adelcrantz (1668–1739), was a pupil and associate of Nicodemus Tessin (ii) and had studied in France and Italy before assisting in the building of the Kungliga Slott in Stockholm. He became City Architect of Stockholm and created the splendid Baroque cupola (1724–44) on Jean De la Vallée’s Katarinakyrka, but he had been pushed aside during the political crisis that followed the death of Charles XII in 1718. He advised his son not to become an architect but nevertheless let him attend the drawing school at the palace. After his father’s death, Adelcrantz went abroad for architectural study in Paris and Italy, returning in 1743 to assist Carl Hårleman in the interior work on the Kungliga Slott. In 1757 he became Superintendent and in 1767 President of the Royal Academy of Arts, which he reorganized by instituting schools of drawing and painting, sculpture and architecture. He was made a baron in ...

Article

Swedish, 18th century, male.

Born 1716; died 1796.

Draughtsman, architect.

Stockholm, 19 May 1992: Designs for the decorations for a royal ceremony (watercolour and ink, 9 × 17¾ ins/22 × 45 cm) SEK 6,500

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A. Gerhardt

Benedictine abbey on the River Enns in Styria, Austria. It was founded in the mid-11th century by Bishop Gebhard from Salzburg, endowed by St Henna von Gurk, Gräfin von Friessach (d 1045), and settled by Benedictine monks from St Peter’s, Salzburg under Abbot Isingrin. The Romanesque minster (consecrated 1074), which was dedicated to St Blaise, was famous for its marble columns and was rebuilt after a fire in 1152; a Gothic choir was added in 1276–86. The present church incorporates Romanesque side doors as well as other fragments. The abbey became an important cultural centre with a renowned scriptorium. Amongst the many famous scholars there was Abbot Engelbert of Admont (reg 1297–1327). From 1121 to the 16th century a convent was attached to the abbey. Under the abbots Mathias Preininger (reg 1615–28) and Urban Weber (reg 1628–59) the whole establishment was transformed in the Baroque style, and the church was rebuilt (...

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Italian, 18th century, male.

Active in Milanc.1700.

Painter, engraver.

Essentially a portraitist, but also painted several emblematic subjects and architectural themes. His engravings include a series of plates representing Milan Cathedral that he signed in conjunction with the architect Carlo Butio.

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Italian, 18th century, male.

Active in Ferrarac.1740.

Engraver, designer of ornamental architectural features.

Article

Italian, 18th century, male.

Active in Milanc.1750.

Painter. Architectural views.

Paintings by Agrote feature in chapels at the Carmelite Church in Milan and the church of S Maria in Brescia; Carbori executed the figures in the latter.

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Andrzej Rottermund

(b Puławy, June 1756; d Florence, Feb 8, 1841).

Polish architect and writer, also active in Italy. He probably studied in Rome in the late 1770s and returned to Italy in 1785–6 under the aegis of Stanisław Kostka Potocki, a collector and amateur architect with whom he collaborated throughout his life. In 1786 Aigner and Potocki refronted the church of St Anna, Warsaw, using a giant composite order on high pedestals. The political turmoil of the 1790s disrupted Aigner’s career, but during his second phase of creativity (1797–1816) he won fame through his work on the great estate of the Czartoryski family at Puławy, on the Vistula west of Lublin, the most important centre of cultural life in Poland during the Enlightenment. Aigner had already erected the Marynka Palace there in 1790, a variation on the Petit Trianon at Versailles, France, and from 1798 he began to add ornamental buildings to go with the new Picturesque layout of the Puławy gardens: a Chinese pavilion, a Gothick house and a peripheral Temple of the Sibyl with a shallow dome. In ...