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Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1944, in Paris.

Performance artist.

Absil works within a group, creating environments similar to those of happenings. These require the participation of spectators, as can be seen in his Promenade in Arrows, created for the Biennale des Jeunes in Paris in ...

Article

Andrew Cross

(b Isleworth, Middx, 1947; d June 5, 2014).

English sculptor. A graduate of St Martin’s School of Art and a contemporary there of Richard Long and Hamish Fulton, he has often been considered in relation to British land art, but his work stands apart from that movement’s direct involvement with the landscape or with the romance of nature. It is more closely allied to the rigorous abstraction of Minimalist painters such as Alan Charlton (b 1948). Ackling’s work remained remarkably consistent from the time that he first started making art in the 1960s, particularly in its reliance on a single exacting process by which fine burn-marks are made onto small pieces of wood or cardboard by focusing the sun’s rays through a magnifying glass. This work, which is always executed outdoors, demands an intensity of concentration that borders on the ritualistic. His very early drawings included shapes reminiscent of figures or clouds, but from the early 1970s his drawings were made using only straight horizontal lines etched into the surface from left to right. Ackling always draws on found objects marked by previous use, such as cardboard from the back of a notepad or wood from a chair leg, either gathered from around the world or discovered washed ashore near his coastal home on the Norfolk coast. Since his art continued to be defined by his chosen method of mark-making, there was little overt development or stylistic evolution. Instead, it was the particular surface characteristics of chosen objects—their shape, size and surface texture—that dictated in each case the placement and banding of the scorched lines, allowing the work its own inner logic....

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Sculptor, creator of environments.

Kinetic Art.

Marc Adrian was part of the Kinetic Art movement, which was significant in the 1960s. He created 'environments', in which the movement of the spectator at the centre provoked, by virtue of modifications in the angle of vision, apparent shifts in the components of the whole composition. He claimed to be researching 'the optimal integration of the spectator in the genesis of the work of art'....

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 20 January 1951, in Paris.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman, illustrator.

Agid began his studies in 1970-1971 by taking one course of teaching and research on the environment. He studied architecture between 1971 and 1976, before registering in fine arts at the Université de Paris VIII....

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Environmental artist.

Lumino-Kinetic Art.

From certain observations made by Goethe in his Theory of Colours, Siegfried Albrecht produced changing shadows in unexpected shades of colour by the projection of chromatic beams onto objects. The results were partly due to the phenomena of simultaneous contrasts, and partly to the intersecting of vividly coloured beams which triggered an artificial splitting of the light....

Article

Dutch, 20th century, male.

Active in France since 1963.

Born 1942, in Harlingen (Friesland).

Sculptor, environmental artist, draughtsman.

Tjeerd Alkema has been based in Montpellier since the 1960s. In 1970, he was one of the founder members of ABC Productions along with Jean Azémard, Alain Clément and Vincent Bioulès, the group which put on an exhibition called ...

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 21 July 1948, in Toulon.

Sculptor, environmental artist, assemblage artist.

Jean Allemand is one of the co-founders of the Space group. He has lived and worked in Paris since 1967. He creates environments by assembling geometric structures.

Allemand has participated in collective exhibitions in Paris: since ...

Article

British, 19th century, male.

Active in Londonc.1880.

Painter.

David Anderson focused his work on fishermen and their environment. He exhibited two paintings at the Suffolk Street Gallery in 1880 and 1881.

Article

Michael Ryan

A treasure hoard (now in Dublin, N. Mus.) discovered in 1868 within the rath (circular earthwork) called Reerasta Rath, near Ardagh in Co. Limerick, Ireland. The objects were buried slightly less than 1 m deep and partly protected by an upright stone. The hoard consists of a splendid two-handled chalice, a smaller bronze chalice and four gilt silver brooches. The probable dates of manufacture range from the 8th century ad to perhaps the early 10th.

The silver chalice (h. 178 mm; max diam. 195 mm) has a broad, almost hemispherical bowl, a copper-alloy stem cast in three parts, and a large, sub-conical foot with a broad, flat foot-ring. A band of filigree ornaments and gem-set enamel studs girdles the bowl below the ring. Below this are two applied medallions with filigree and enamels. The strap handles spring from applied escutcheons decorated with enamel, filigree and granulation. The stem carries superb cast gilt ...

Article

Arman  

Alfred Pacquement

[Fernandez, Armand]

(b Nice, Nov 17, 1928; d New York, Oct 22, 2005).

American sculptor and collector of French birth. Arman lived in Nice until 1949, studying there at the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs from 1946 and in 1947 striking up a friendship with the artist Yves Klein, with whom he was later closely associated in the Nouveau Réalisme movement. In 1949 he moved to Paris, where he studied at the Ecole du Louvre and where in an exhibition in 1954 he discovered the work of Kurt Schwitters, which led him to reject the lyrical abstraction of the period. In 1955 Arman began producing Stamps, using ink-pads in a determined critique of Art informel and Abstract Expressionism to suggest a depersonalized and mechanical version of all-over paintings. In his next series, the Gait of Objects, which he initiated in 1958, he took further his rejection of the subjectivity of the personal touch by throwing inked objects against the canvas.

Arman’s willingness to embrace chance was indicated by his decision in ...

Article

Arradon  

French, 20th century, female.

Born 5 January 1931, in Nantes.

Environmental artist, sculptor, painter. Designs for tapestries.

Kinetic Art.

Adam Séma Group.

Arradon studied at the studio of André Lhote in Paris. From 1962 she took part in the traditional annual salons in Paris: the Salon des Indépendants, the Salon de la Jeune Peinture, at the time quite involved in representation and politics, and the Salon des Grands et Jeunes d'Aujourd'hui. In ...

Article

Dutch, 20th century, male.

Active in Belgium.

Born 1937, in Maastricht.

Sculptor, environmental artist.

Lumino-Kinetic Art.

After studying initially at the Fine Arts Academy in Maastricht, Bailleux left the Netherlands in 1959 for Belgium, where he studied at the Fine Arts Academy in Antwerp. In 1970, he was awarded the Prix de la Jeune Sculpture Belge (Prize for Best Young Belgian Sculptor)....

Article

Banksy  

British, 20th – 21st century, male.

Graffiti art, street art, political art.

Banksy is an anonymous English street artist who emerged in the art world in the early 1990s. Originally a freehand graffiti artist, he transitioned to using stencils by the early 2000s. Satirical and political in nature, his works typically depict rats, children, celebrity figures, policemen, and apes to who address issues of capitalism, urban decay, war, consumer culture, greed, and corruption. He usually works illegally, painting directly onto the facades of buildings and other structures....

Article

Banksy  

Elizabeth K. Mix

(b Bristol, ?1974).

English graffiti and interventionist artist. Banksy is best known for stencilled graffiti that sometimes mimics government posts. His graffiti, both freehand and stencil, started appearing on trains and walls around Bristol in 1992–4. He apparently left Bristol for London late in 1999. The name ‘Banksy’ became formally associated with his work with the publication of his first book, Banging Your Head Against a Brick Wall (2001).

Banksy’s text-based graffiti has included the phrase, ‘caution, concealed trap doors in operation’, on London’s Millennium Bridge; ‘designated riot area’ in Trafalgar Square, and ‘this is not a not a photo opportunity’ at various tourist sites including Big Ben, the Eiffel Tower, and the Sydney Opera House. Many were fooled by his official-looking stencilled declaration that walls on Marylebone and Bayswater Roads in Westminster were ‘a designated graffiti area’. Other works contained unusual appropriations of public property—vandalized street signs, traffic cones, telephone booths, vehicles, and even farm animals. Banksy has termed his appropriation and manipulation of public advertisements ‘Brandalism’. A subtle use of found objects involves the painting of frames or dotted lines and scissors around the edges of objects, making the outlined objects appear to be either artworks or coupons ready to be clipped. In addition, Banksy has mimicked British pound notes (‘Banksy notes’ featuring Princess Diana) and oil paintings by William Bouguereau and Claude Monet, among other artists, by inserting incongruous objects (bombs, iPods, shopping trolleys) into copies of well-known paintings in a series of ‘Vandalized Oil Paintings’....

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 1958, in Dijon.

Painter, environmental artist.

Having given up a career as a primary school teacher, Cécile Bart graduated with a diploma from the École des Beaux-Arts in Dijon. She lives and works in Marsannay-la-Côte in Burgundy. In 2003...

Article

British, 19th century, male.

Born 1822, in Colchester; died 2 May 1858, in Naples.

Sculptor.

Edward Bartholomew ran the Wadsworth Atheneum in Hartford, Connecticut, the oldest public art museum in the USA. Most of his works are to be found there.

Hartford (Wadsworth Atheneum): Repentant Eve...

Article

Belgian, 20th century, female.

Born 1934, in Ukkel.

Environmental artist, sculptor.

Marianne Berenhaut studied under Moeschal at the academy of fine arts in Brussels, where she won the first prize for non-figurative sculpture in 1967. Her compositions are produced from objects taken out of their original context, such as the ...

Article

German, 20th century, female.

Born 2 July 1936, in Giessen.

Painter, sculptor, environmental artist.

Lore Bert was a student at the school of fine arts in Berlin, then at the school of arts and trades in Darmstadt. She lives and works in Mainz. She uses Korean and Japanese paper which, through various procedures of manipulation including creasing, cutting out, sewing and collage, she turns into paintings, sculptures or surrounds. The surfaces are often covered with signs, figures, geometrical letters or shapes....

Article

British, 20th–21st century, male.

Born 1963, in England.

Book artist, printmaker, graphic designer, installation artist, art director, writer, educator. Community art, environmental art.

After a Foundation course at Lanchester Polytechnic, Lanchester (1981–1982), Les Bicknell studied graphic design at the London College of Printing (...

Article

Belgian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in Antwerp.

Born 1946, in Antwerp.

Installation artist.

Neo-Conceptual Art.

Guillaume Bijl did his first installation in 1979. In his installations, he recreates the functional environments of the world of work, setting up incongruities in contrast with the artistic domain they are presented in. An artificial sun-tanning salon is perfectly recreated with a bike and blue neons, a 'found sculpture' is a polling booth or an ensemble of four street lamps around a tub of flowers - a perfect example of street furniture. Bijl's work might be construed as a critique of the art of the object based on the simple technique of displacement of context....