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17th century, male.

Born 1639, in Antwerp.

Painter, engraver, architect.

Engravings by Hendrik Abbé have survived in Antwerp cathedral and the artist is also cited by Heinecken as responsible for the illustrations to Ovid's Metamorphoses as published by Barrier. He is further believed to have been responsible for a ...


C. J. A. Wansink



Italian, 17th century, male.

Active in Parma.

Died 1667.

Engraver (etching), designer of ornamental architectural features.


Christiaan Schuckman

(b Mijdrecht, c. 1652; d after 1683).

Dutch etcher and draughtsman. His birthplace and date are inscribed on his mezzotint portrait of his father, Johannes ab Almeloveen (1678; Hollstein, no. 38), who was a preacher in Mijdrecht. Jan’s other 37 prints are all etchings, mainly landscapes. In his topographical views of Dutch rivers and occasionally the Rhine, van Almeloveen followed the tradition of established masters. Twenty of these landscapes are based on designs by Herman Saftleven, including a series of twelve depictions of Dutch villages such as Langerack and an unusual diamond-shaped series of the Four Seasons. The remaining, less lively compositions were made after his own designs. An annotation on one of his landscape drawings (Leiden, Rijksuniv., Prentenkab., AW #1008) indicates that on 8 August 1680 he was working at Frankfurt an der Oder, but he was presumably in Utrecht for most of the period from 1678 to 1683, when he dated his last known print, one in a series of six landscapes (Hollstein, 21–6)....


Italian, 17th century, male.

Born c. 1600, in Bologna; died after 1678.

Painter, decorative designer, fresco artist, engraver. Religious subjects, architectural views, perspectives, landscapes. Church decoration.

Studied initially under Bernardino Baldi, then Calvaert, following whose death in 1619 Ambrogi spent years studying with Francesco Brizio (from whom he takes his sobriquet Menichino del Brizio). Ambrogi quickly made a reputation for himself as a painter of frescoes and oils, not least in his depiction of landscape, architecture and perspective. The Uffizi in Florence houses two of his religious landscapes; his ...


Mechthild Muller


(b Nuremberg, bapt March 25, 1650; d Munich, Jan 1, 1703).

German engraver and draughtsman. He mainly produced portraits, in the form of engravings, drawings and grisaille miniatures executed with a brush. From 1671 he was copper-engraver to Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria, who supported him when he undertook further training in Liège under Michel Natalis (1610–68) and in Paris under Nicolas de Poilly. From the latter Amling learnt how to use and arrange line to produce a very wide range of effects; he also picked up the stiff, two-dimensional look of de Poilly’s figures. He must surely have come into contact with Robert Nanteuil in Paris; he shared with him a delight in detail that appears photographic and a veristic style of reproduction.

Amling generally shows his sitters in three-quarter view, following a formulaic composition. Sometimes their features are exaggerated, as for example in the portraits on parchment of Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria, and his wife ...



German, 17th century, male.

Active in Ulm.

Died 1669, in Ulm.

Painter, engraver. Historical subjects, portraits, architectural views, flowers.

Jonas Arnold tried his hand successfully at several artistic genres. He had a facility for drawn or painted portraits, historical and architectural subjects, plants and flowers. His works include paintings illustrating 200 types of tulip in the collection of Christoph Weikmann in Ulm....


Blanca García Vega

(b Huesca, c. 1650; d Huesca, 1711).

Spanish engraver, painter, architect, mathematician and astronomer . He founded the chair of mathematics at the University of Huesca, designed the façade of the university and from 1690 was responsible for overseeing the whole of its construction. He executed an etching of this façade, as well as others showing allegories referring to the city and the university. Artiga wrote scientific and literary works, including an unpublished treatise entitled Fortificación elemental, which he illustrated. He also illustrated Vicencio Juan de Lastanosa’s Tratado de la moneda jaquesa (Saragossa, 1681) and engraved some further architectural views as well as images of antique Roman fragments and archaeological remains. In addition, he produced religious engravings, and a number of paintings have been attributed to him by Ceán Bermúdez.

Bénézit; Ceán Bermúdez A. Gallego: Historia del grabado en España (Madrid, 1979), p. 192 E. Páez Ríos: Repertorio (Madrid, 1981–3), i, pp. 70–71 C. Guitart Aparicio: ‘Geografía de la arquitectura barroca en Aragón’, ...


Marion Hagenmann-Bischoff


(b Brussels, c. ?1570–80).

Flemish goldsmith, draughtsman, sculptor, copper engraver and embosser, active in Germany . As a skilled goldsmith from Brussels, he is documented at Augsburg between 1598 and 1604, and from 1603 as a tax-paying citizen; before this he was probably living in Friedberg nearby. After he is recorded as paying taxes three years in advance, traces of Aspruck fade away in 1604. Since he was not accepted as a master craftsman by the Augsburg goldsmiths’ trade, he worked with them as a ‘free artist’. His skills included draughtsmanship, modelling and casting as well as copper engraving, which he also taught to goldsmith apprentices and journeymen. Aspruck’s drawings from 1597 to 1601 show an individual style influenced by Hendrick Goltzius and Bartholomäus Spranger, for example Venus and Amor (1598; Hamburg, Ksthalle). He also sketched for other engravers, as is known, first of all, from the surviving publishing production of the Antwerp engraver Dominicus Custos in Augsburg. In ...


French, 17th century, male.

Born c. 1588, in Paris; died 8 November 1635, in Nantes.

Engraver (etching), engineer.

Bachot was the son-in-law of Chevalier Errard Le Vieux, and replaced him as the Architectural Commissioner in charge of fortifications and restorations in Brittany. He also left a work entitled: ...


(b Emden, East Frisia [now Germany], Dec 28, 1630; d Amsterdam, 6–7 Nov, bur Nov 12, 1708).

Dutch painter, draughtsman, calligrapher and printmaker of German origin. He was the son of Gerhard Backhusz. (Backhusen) of Emden, and he trained as a clerk in his native town. Shortly before 1650 he joined the Bartolotti trading house in Amsterdam, where his fine handwriting attracted attention. He practised calligraphy throughout his life (examples in Amsterdam, Rijksmus.; Dresden, Kupferstichkab.; London, BM). During his early years in Amsterdam he also displayed his skilled use of the pen in drawings, mainly marine scenes, done in black ink on prepared canvas, panel or parchment. He probably derived this technique and subject-matter from Willem van de Velde (ii) the elder’s pen drawings of the 1650s. Bakhuizen continued to produce pen drawings until the 1660s, some depicting recognizable ships and existing views, such as his Ships Leaving Amsterdam Harbour (Amsterdam, Kon. Coll. Zeemanschoop), others depicting unidentified locations, as in the View of a Dutch Waterway (Amsterdam, Ned. Hist. Scheepvaartsmus.)...


French, 17th century, male.


Engraver, designer of ornamental architectural features.

Baré, together with Pierre Guillebaud, produced arabesques and friezes.


Richard Jeffree

(b ?Lincs, c. 1626; d London, bur Aug 11, 1704).

English painter, etcher and draughtsman. In 1650, following his probable apprenticeship to the portrait painter William Sheppard (fl 1641–60), he was made free of the Painter-Stainers’ Company. He was by then a mature draughtsman, as can be seen by his drawing of David Slaying the Lion (1648; London, BM). In 1652 Edward Benlowe’s poem Theophila: Or Love’s Sacrifice, a Divine Poem was published in London with a frontispiece portrait of the author and a further 11 fine plates by Barlow (drawing for one plate in London, BM; drawing for another in London, V&A). Following Theophila, Barlow produced plates for numerous books, such as Richard Blome’s The Gentleman’s Recreation (1686). He published his own major edition of Aesop’s Fables in London in 1666 (dated 1665); two further editions, one in 1687 with additional plates and one in 1703, were dedicated to William Cavendish, 3rd Earl of Devonshire. Many drawings for both the original and expanded editions survive (London, BM). Barlow also contributed plates to the revised version (...


Mirka Beneš

(b Marseille, 1618; d Rome, Sept 18, 1678).

French etcher and architectural designer. He arrived in Rome around 1640 where he settled permanently among its community of French artists. No records exist of his training, but his earliest etchings (1640–47) are historical and mythological scenes, such as the Battle of Bommel in 1585 (1640) after Guglielmo Cortese and Apollo and Python (c. 1647–52) after Domenichino’s painting for the Villa Aldobrandini, Frascati.

Barrière also etched seascapes in the manner of his friend and fellow French artist Claude Lorrain, for whom he later etched five scenes between 1660 and 1668, such as the Seaport with Ulysses Returning Chryseis to her Father (c. 1644; etching, 1664). In 1647 Barrière began to work on precise perspectival renderings of architecture and topography. He was encouraged in this direction by the patronage of the Francophile amateur architect Prince Camillo Pamphili, who commissioned Barrière’s best works, the plate-books ...


Annamaria Negro Spina


(b Perugia, 1615; d Rome, Nov 7, 1700).

Italian engraver, draughtsman and painter . He lived in Rome from 1635, initially as the pupil of Poussin, later serving Christina, Queen of Sweden, as an antiquarian. He was an indefatigable engraver of Roman monuments, and his work was published in, for example, Admiranda Romanorum Antiquitatum (Rome, 1693). He also engraved from Raphael, Polidoro da Caravaggio, the Carracci and Lanfranco, and on subjects of his own invention. As a draughtsman, Bartoli reproduced the Codice Virgiliano (Rome, Vatican, Bib. Apostolica, Cod. Vat. 3867) in 55 plates (1677; Rome, Calcografia N.), commissioned by Cardinal Camillo Massimi, for whom he also executed drawings of ancient Roman paintings and mosaics (Glasgow, U. Lib.). He lived for a long time in Paris, where he was introduced at the court of Louis XIV.

DBI C. Pace: ‘Pietro Santi Bartoli: Drawings in Glasgow University Library after Roman Paintings and Mosaics’, Papers of the British School at Rome...


Keith Andrews

(b Rotterdam, c. 1636; d Rotterdam, 1684).

Dutch draughtsman, etcher and painter. He is usually judged by his many signed—and often highly coloured—gouache drawings of landscape views and genre scenes. However, several gouache drawings of religious subjects, for example the Crucifixion (Cleveland, OH, Mus. A.), have been suggested as early works (see Andrews, 1981 and 1983). Between 1648 and 1654 he was very likely a pupil in Rotterdam of Abraham Furnerius, a relative (on his mother’s side). In 1668 van Battem was in Utrecht, where he married Margaretha Scheffer, sister of the local painter Anton Scheffer. The same year he was commissioned by Philips Koninck, the brother-in-law of Abraham Furnerius (d 1654), to arrange for the auction of the prints, drawings and art books belonging to the estate of Abraham’s father, Dr Johannes Furnerius (d 1668), a Rotterdam surgeon and collector. Van Battem must have seen the colourful landscapes of Herman Saftleven II while in Utrecht, where he lived until ...


Annamaria Negro Spina

(b Pisa, c. 1610; d ?Florence, after 1641).

Italian draughtsman and engraver. After studying at Giulio Parigi’s academy, he became first a ‘servant of His Serene Highness the Archduke of Innsbruck, then castellan of the old fortress of Livorno, and finally of the fortress of Pisa’ (Baldinucci). Art was not his main interest, yet Baldinucci described him as ‘a brilliant draughtsman in pen and ink’, and his drawings, which are mainly of subjects inspired by his experience of military occupations, hunts and battles, are highly accomplished. His landscape drawings, which include a View of the Valley of the Arno, with the Villa Ambrogiana (1633; Florence, Bib. Marucelliana), a rare example of a dated drawing, and his Landscape with Rustic Houses and Muleteer (Florence, Uffizi), convey a Tuscan feeling for the pleasures of country life. A group of studies of trees (Florence, Uffizi), reminiscent of similar drawings by Paul Bril, delight in the effects of gnarled roots and tree trunks decoratively patterned against the sky. In ...


Gordon Campbell


Mary Ann Scott


(b Haarlem, 1631/2, bapt ?Jan 22, 1632; d Haarlem, ?Aug 27, 1664).

Dutch painter, draughtsman and etcher. He was born into prosperous circumstances; his mother, Maria Cornelis, inherited half the estate (gold, silver, paintings, drawings and prints) and all of the red chalk drawings of her father, Cornelis Cornelisz. van Haarlem, a renowned Mannerist artist. Bega’s father was Pieter Jansz. Begijn (d 1648), a gold- and silversmith. Like other family members, Bega was probably Catholic. Houbraken’s claim that Bega studied with Adriaen van Ostade is likely to be correct; this was probably before 24 April 1653, when Bega joined Vincent Laurentsz. van der Vinne in Frankfurt for a journey through Germany, Switzerland and France. Bega had returned to Haarlem by 1 September 1654, at which time he joined the Guild of St Luke; he was already a competent draughtsman, as indicated by his first extant dated work, Interior with a Nursing Mother (1652; Frankfurt am Main, Städel. Kstinst.), and by a remarkable double portrait (Amsterdam, Rijksmus.) drawn by him and ...