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Gerardo Pérez Calero

(b Madrid, 1823; d 1897).

Spanish painter, watercolourist and illustrator. He trained at the Escuela de Nobles Artes in Seville (1833–40) and subsequently at the Real Academia de S Fernando in Madrid. He became a member of the Academia de S Isabel de Hungria of Seville in 1848, where he taught from 1859 and reformed the teaching of art. His early work shows traces of Neo-classicism, although his art is essentially based on Romanticism. Between 1851 and 1861 he concentrated on portrait painting, depicting mainly female subjects or children; examples include Youth with a Dog (Seville, Neana Col.), Self-portrait (Seville, Mus. B.A.) and Josefa Garvey (Seville, priv. col.). He was an important link between Romanticism and Realism and stimulated a renewed interest in history painting in Spain, a genre he established at the Exposición Nacional in 1856 with his painting Christopher Columbus in the Convent of La Rábida (Madrid, Pal. de las Cortes), which was awarded first prize. He won the same prize in ...


Donald A. Rosenthal

(b Bordeaux, July 16, 1804; d Paris, Feb 18, 1868).

French painter, illustrator and writer. His early training was as a theatrical scene painter and a designer of lithographic illustrations. In Bordeaux he studied with Pierre Lacour (ii) (1778–1859) and worked with Thomas Olivier (1772–1839), chief scene designer at the Grand-Théâtre. He subsequently studied in Paris in the studio of the landscape and history painter Julien-Michel Gué (1789–1843) and worked for the decorators of the Théâtre Italien.

From 1827 Dauzats provided lithographic designs for Isidore-Justin-Séverin Taylor’s series Voyages pittoresques et romantiques dans l’ancienne France (1820–78). He travelled in the French provinces, particularly Champagne, Dauphiné and Languedoc, often sketching the medieval monuments that had come into vogue during the Romantic period.

Dauzats also collaborated on lithographs for many other publications, including Taylor’s Voyage en Orient. For this last project Dauzats travelled to Egypt, Syria, Palestine and Turkey in 1830, a trip that he described in his book ...


Sixten Ringbom

(Valdemar) [Gallén, Axel until 1904]

(b Pori [Swed. Björneborg], Finland, April 26, 1865; d Stockholm, March 7, 1931).

Finnish painter, graphic artist and designer. He learnt the elements of drawing and painting in Helsinki at the School of the Finnish Arts Society and the studio of the painter Adolf von Becker (1831–1909).

His first significant painting, The Boy and the Crow (1884; Helsinki, Athenaeum A. Mus.), shows his ambition to keep abreast of developments in Naturalism, a style introduced to him through the works of young Finnish and Scandinavian painters in Paris. In the autumn of 1884 he arrived in Paris, where he attended the Académie Julian and the studio of Fernand Cormon. In 1885 he completed his oil painting Old Woman with a Cat (Turku, A. Mus.), a veristic study of poverty and deprivation. Gallén’s single-figure compositions of this period followed a formula exploited by Jean-François Millet, Jules Breton and Jules Bastien-Lepage. In these seemingly static images, the life story of the protagonist was suggested through significant attributes, physiognomic elaboration and background details....


Hans Joachim Neidhardt

(b Dresden, Sept 28, 1803; d Dresden, June 19, 1884).

German painter, printmaker and illustrator. He ranks with Moritz von Schwind as the most important representative of late Romantic painting and printmaking in Germany. In contrast to the work of such leading masters of early Romanticism as Philipp Otto Runge and Caspar David Friedrich, which was ambitious in content and innovative in form, Richter’s art was more modest in its aims, in line with the restrained intellectual climate of the Biedermeier period.

Richter came from a lower middle-class background and was first taught by his father, the copperplate engraver Carl August Richter (1770–1848). His early work consists of etched landscape views in the style of Adrian Zingg (1734–1816). In 1820–21 Richter accompanied the Russian Prince Narishkin on a journey to France as a veduta draughtsman, and then he lived in Italy from 1823 to 1826. He was in contact with the circle of the Lukasbrüder (Nazarenes) in Rome and was a pupil of the landscape painter ...



(b Schwedt am Oder, June 28, 1805; d Karlsruhe, Dec 9, 1875).

German painter, illustrator and printmaker. After training as an engraver and lithographer in the workshop of his father, Karl Friedrich Heinrich Schrödter, he went to Berlin, where he became a pupil of Ludwig Buchheim. He studied painting in Düsseldorf with Wilhelm Schadow from 1829. His work of this period represents a critique of the sentimental Romanticism of contemporary painting in Düsseldorf. His paintings also had a comic element, derived from his interest in English works; this subsequently became an essential feature of genre painting in Düsseldorf. Tavern in the Rhineland (1833; Bonn, Rhein. Landesmus.) shows Schrödter’s attempt to create truth to nature by incorporating impressions from studies into the finished painting. The detailed activity and light colours contribute to the unusually fresh atmosphere of the pictures.

Schrödter’s illustrative work and decorative initials for books were imitated by many other artists. In 1835 he produced a decorative frontispiece for the first volume of ...


L. I. Popova

(Hryhorovych) [Grigor’yevich]

(b Moryntsi, Kiev province [now Cherkasy region], March 9, 1814; d St Petersburg, March 10, 1861).

Ukrainian painter, graphic artist and poet. He was born a serf, and he moved to St Petersburg with his owner in 1831. In 1832–8 he worked in the studio of the fresco painter V. Shiryayev. With the help of some Russian writers and artists, he was bought out of serfdom in 1838, and he enrolled at the Academy of Arts. From 1838 to 1845 he studied under Karl Bryullov, whose influence, which continued, can already be seen in Shevchenko’s watercolour Gypsy Woman and the Self-portrait in oils (both 1841; Kiev, Shevchenko Mus.)

Bryullov’s influence is further notable in Shevchenko’s portraits of the 1840s. Shevchenko’s artistic and literary activities went hand in hand, and he published numerous volumes of poetry. In 1842 he painted the picture Katerina (Kiev, Shevchenko Mus.) on the same subject as his poem of that title—a serf girl deceived and abandoned by an officer. The central figure is painted with great delicacy and psychological effect; although conventional in composition and tone it shows a detailed observation of everyday life....