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José Miguel Rojas

(b San José, June 1, 1907; d 1998).

Costa Rican engraver, painter, illustrator, draughtsman, writer and critic. He studied for a year from 1931 at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes but was otherwise initially self-taught, using Louis Gonse’s L’Art japonais (Paris, 1883) as a source. He produced a series of caricature drawings, influenced by Cubism, in the Album de dibujos de 1926. During 1929 he met the sculptors Juan Manuel Sánchez and Francisco Zúñiga (the latter was also a printmaker), and through his interest in German and Mexican Expressionist printmakers, he developed a passion for wood-engraving. His first wood-engravings were published in the periodical Repertorio Americano (1929). He went on to contribute wood-engravings and drawings to collections of short stories and poetry, educational books, periodicals and newspapers. In 1931 he taught drawing and wood-engraving at the Escuela Normal in Heredia. He exhibited at the Salones Anuales de Artes Plásticas in San José (1931–6...


Hana Larvová

(b Pavlíkov, nr Rakovník, Sept 14, 1936).

Czech draughtsman, painter and printmaker. From 1955 to 1961 he studied painting and graphic art at the Academy of Fine Arts in Prague. From 1961 to 1968 he worked at the Black Theatre of Jiří Srnec, a centre of the Prague avant-garde. He was assistant to Professors Jiří Trnka and Zdeněk Sklenář at the Faculty of Applied Art in Prague from 1969 to 1973, and in 1982–4 his work was shown at the central exhibition of the Biennale in Venice. His primary means of expression is drawing. His work forms closed complexes that capture moments of human existence, either in connection with ancient myths and legends or as aspects of contemporary life, for example the cycles of paintings, drawings and graphics Village Dancing Girl (1960–62), Illusion and Reality (1980–83; 1981, Ljubljana, Grand Prix BIB; 1982, Venice Biennale) and Apocalyptic Genetics (1982–3) and the cycle of paintings ...


Irma B. Jaffe

(b New Brunswick, NJ, Aug 15, 1922; d Northampton, MA, June 3, 2000).

American sculptor, illustrator and printmaker. Baskin studied at the New York University School of Architecture and Allied Arts (1939–41), the School of Fine Art (1941–3) and New School for Social Research (1949). He also studied at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Paris (1950) and the Accademia delle Belle Arti in Florence (1951). Inspired by the iconic, monolithic imagery of Ancient Egyptian and Sumerian art, and the similar stylistic qualities of Romanesque and Italian Gothic, he consistently and inventively made use of the archaic mode in such prints as the powerful woodcut Man of Peace (1952; see Fern and O’Sullivan, p. 61) as well as in his sculpture. A traditionalist, he carved in wood and stone, and modelled in clay, taking the human figure as his subject. He firmly believed that painting and sculpture should mediate between artist and viewer some moral insight about human experience, and he was convinced that abstract art could not do this. Throughout his career he rejected spatial penetration of form, preferring the holistic look of such works as the ...


German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 April 1868, in Hamburg; died 27 February 1940, in Berlin.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, architect, designer, decorative artist, graphic designer. Posters, furniture, wallpaper, carpets, glassware, ceramics, table services, jewellery, silverwork, objets d'art, typefaces.

Jugendstil, functional school.

Die Sieben (Group of Seven), Deutscher Werkbund...


(b Salzburg, May 1, 1753; d Prague, June 25, 1829).

Austrian painter, printmaker, draughtsman, illustrator and teacher, active in Bohemia. He was taught by his father, the sculptor and painter Josef Bergler the elder (1718–88), and, during his stay in Italy, by Martin Knoller in Milan and Anton von Maron in Rome. An accomplished portrait painter, he was employed as official painter by bishops and cardinals at Passau and painted a number of altarpieces in Austria and especially in Bohemia. He helped establish the Academy of Fine Arts, Prague (1800), which placed a new emphasis on draughtsmanship, composition and Classical subjects and models. As the first Director of the Academy, Bergler won new academic prestige for art in Bohemia and, for himself, a privileged position in obtaining commissions such as the Curtain at the Estates Theatre (sketches, 1803–4; Prague, N.G., Convent of St Agnes). He also published albums of engravings intended as models (Compositions and Sketches...


Clare A. P. Willsdon

(b Bruges, May 12, 1867; d Ditchling, Sussex, June 11, 1956).

English painter and graphic artist. Largely self-taught, he helped his father, William Brangwyn, who was an ecclesiastical architect and textile designer in Bruges. After his family moved to England in 1875 Brangwyn entered the South Kensington Art Schools and from 1882 to 1884 worked for William Morris. Harold Rathbone and Arthur Mackmurdo encouraged him to copy Raphael and Donatello in the Victoria and Albert Museum, complementing his already broad knowledge of Dutch and Flemish art.

Brangwyn’s plein-air work in Cornwall from 1884 to 1888 resulted in a series of oils, exhibited at the Royal Academy and the Royal Society of British Artists, London, in which the subdued tones indicate the influences of Whistler and the Newlyn school. Journeys to the Near East, South Africa and Europe in the early 1890s, and contact with Arthur Melville, encouraged the use of a brighter palette in exotic subjects such as the Slave Market...



French, 20th century, female.

Born 25 August 1929, in Paris.

Painter, engraver, draughtswoman (including ink), watercolourist, graphic designer. Scenes with figures, landscapes, urban landscapes, architectural views, seascapes, boats, still-lifes, cats, flowers. Wall decorations, designs for tapestries.

Céelle studied at the École des Arts Décoratifs and the École Estienne in Paris. She worked in advertising as a graphic artist. Her work as a graphic artist is evident in her acuity of line, and the rigour of her composition. She generally paints in greys and browns, although she has occasionally surprised with her subtle colours, especially in the years ...


Paul Nicholls

(b Milan, May 20, 1852; d Milan, Jan 23, 1917).

Italian painter, printmaker, illustrator and architect. Although he was the nephew of the painter Mauro Conconi (1815–60), he studied architecture at the Accademia di Brera and the Scuola Politecnica in Milan. His pictorially imaginative approach reflected the artistic ideals of the contemporary Italian writer Giuseppe Rovani. Despite having failed in his first competition, Conconi embarked in 1876 on an architectural project for Palazzo Marino, Milan, together with the architect Guido Pisani Dossi. Courtyard of the Palazzo Marino, an evocative etching conceived as part of the project (untraced; see Giolli, pl. xxxv), was shown in 1877 at the Brera exhibition in Milan and also at the Salon in Paris, through the architect Luca Beltrami, who was resident there at that time. After collaborating briefly in the construction of the Palazzo Turati in Milan, Conconi entered two competitions for public monuments: the first, in 1880, to commemorate the Milanese anti-Austrian uprising of ...


Israeli, 20th century, male.

Active from 1948 active in Israel.

Born 16 December 1908, in Bucharest.

Painter, engraver, poster artist, graphic designer, decorative designer. Designs for tapestries, and stained glass windows.

He was an architecture student at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where he later studied painting at the Scandinavian Academy and at the Académie Julian ...


British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1879, in Northampton; died 1941.

Painter, lithographer, poster artist, architect.

Henry George Gawthorne studied at the Regent Street Polytechnic and Heatherley's School of Art in London. He would always include an image of himself in his works, often wearing a monocle or holding a walking stick....


Jacques Thirion

(b c. 1510; d ?Bologna, c. 1565).

French sculptor, illustrator and architect. He was one of the great masters of relief sculpture. Through his collaboration with the architect Pierre Lescot he was involved in many major building projects, and in his refined relief sculptures, such as the carved panels for the Fountain of the Innocents, Paris, he achieved a highly personal synthesis between the mannered style of the Fontainebleau school and a classicism derived from his study of antique sculpture. He illustrated with skilful and lively wood-engravings Jean Baptiste Martin I’s first complete French translation (Paris, 1547) of Vitruvius, De architectura: Architecture ou art de bien bastir, an edition that was to have considerable influence on the revival of the classical style in France.

Goujon was possibly of Norman origin, and the knowledge of the sculpture and architecture of anti-quity and the Italian Renaissance displayed in his works suggests that he spent time in Italy. He is first recorded at Rouen in ...


Phillip Dennis Cate

(b Lausanne, May 25, 1841; d Paris, Oct 23, 1917).

French illustrator, decorative artist and printmaker of Swiss birth. Before arriving in Paris in the autumn of 1871, Grasset had been apprenticed to an architect, attended the Polytechnic in Zurich and travelled to Egypt. In Paris he found employment as a fabric designer and graphic ornamentalist, which culminated in his first important project, the illustrations for Histoire des quatre fils Aymon (1883). Grasset worked in collaboration with Charles Gillot, the inventor of photo-relief printing and an influential collector of Oriental and decorative arts, in the production of this major work of Art Nouveau book design and of colour photomechanical illustration. Grasset used a combination of medieval and Near Eastern decorative motifs to frame and embellish his illustrations, but most importantly he integrated text and imagery in an innovative manner which has had a lasting influence on book illustration.

In 1881 he was commissioned by Rodolphe Salis to design furnishing in a medieval style for the latter’s new Chat Noir cabaret in Montmartre. This project brought him in direct contact with Montmartre avant-garde artists such as Adolphe Willette, Théophile-Alexandre Steinlen, Henri Rivière and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. Grasset’s numerous posters include ...


(b Hitchin, Herts, Oct 30, 1876; d Campden, Glos, June 7, 1938).

English etcher, illustrator and designer. Originally trained as an architect, he remained fascinated by ruins, and these formed his principal subject-matter. His first exhibited work at the Royal Academy, in 1897, was an architectural perspective. His first illustrated book was an edition of Tennyson’s In Memoriam (1900). From 1902 he worked for Macmillan Publishers, illustrating their Highways and Byways series, completing nine volumes and thirty-nine drawings for the Essex volume (on which he was working when he died).

Reception into the Roman Catholic church in 1912 (taking the baptismal name of Maur) had a profound influence on him and confirmed a nostalgic reverence for pre-Reformation England inherited from William Morris. This appears in his etchings in a preference for buildings in the Gothic style and a deliberately archaizing manner. He recognized the symbolic and emotive potential of architecture, which he used to express not only passionate devotion to the lost Gothic order, but also his sense that the modern world was fundamentally inferior to the past. This gives his work a curious hallucinatory quality: ruins are restored to completeness and inhabited by medieval figures, as though viewed in a timewarp (his etching, ...


Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1908, in Pieve Porto Morone (Pavia); died 1999, in Milan.

Engraver, poster artist.

Grignani studied architecture, but a considerable proportion of his work was graphic. His work is often in black and white and is based on the distortion of geometrically regular figures. He was a member of the International Graphic Alliance and he exhibited under its auspices in Paris, London, Lausanne, Milan, Amsterdam, Hamburg, Vienna and New York....


British, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1962, in Tenterden, Kent.

Painter, printmaker, graphic artist. Figures, architecture.

Young British Artists.

Gary Hume studied at the Liverpool Polytechnic from 1985 to 1986, and at Goldsmiths College in London from 1986 to 1988. He was among a group of Goldsmith's graduates that featured in a show curated by fellow student Damien Hirst in ...


M. N. Sokolov


(b Ruza, nr Moscow, June 16, 1864; d Svistukha, nr Moscow, Aug 16, 1910).

Russian painter and graphic artist. He studied at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture (1878–82 and 1884–5) under Illarion Pryanishnikov and others. He was a member of the Wanderers from 1899 and of the Union of Russian Artists, of which he was one of the founders. Ivanov became dissatisfied with the traditional Wanderers-style realism of the late 19th century and early 20th and with the painting of genre scenes—‘nice little scenes’, as he called them—and he aspired to a strongly dramatic expressive art, in which ‘the heartbeat of the human soul’ could be felt. His series of pictures of migrants, capturing the tragedies of peasant life (e.g. On the Road: Death of a Migrant, 1889; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.), is marked by an austere verism.

Ivanov was an innovator in history painting, introducing strong foreshortening effects, framing the composition and seeking to give it the maximum emotional impact. Among his masterpieces of this period are ...


Fridolf Johnson

(b Tarrytown, NY, June 21, 1882; d Au Sable Forks, NY, March 13, 1971).

American painter, printmaker, illustrator, writer, and sailor. He first studied architecture but turned to painting, studying in New York at the schools of William Merritt Chase and of Robert Henri. In his realistic landscapes, the most famous of which related to his long sojourns in such remote and rugged places as Alaska, Tierra del Fuego, and Greenland (e.g. Eskimo in a Kayak, 1933; Moscow, Pushkin Mus. F.A.), he favoured a precise rendering of forms with strong contrasts of light and dark. He was also renowned for the many books that he illustrated and wrote about his adventures. His considerable reputation as an illustrator was based on his striking drawings for such classics as Voltaire’s Candide (New York, 1928) and Herman Melville’s Moby Dick (Chicago, 1930). His simple but distinctive graphic designs, such as God Speed (wood-engraving, 1931; see Kent, 1933, p. 87), were widely imitated.

Rockwellkentiana (New York, 1933)...


(b Temesvár [now Timişoara, Romania], Dec 16, 1883; d Cluj-Napoca, Romania, Aug 24, 1977).

Hungarian architect, graphic artist, teacher, writer and politician. He studied (1902–7) at the Hungarian Palatine Josef Technical University, Budapest, where he experimented with Romanesque Revival designs, then travelled to Italy, Germany and Austria. On his return he became the leading figure of Fiatalok (Hung.: ‘the young’), a group of Hungarian architects including Béla Jánszky (1884–1945), Valér Mende, Dezső Zrumeczky (1883–1917) and Dénes Györgyi, who rejected both Ödön Lechner’s Secessionist architecture and the prevalent historicism. Kós was influenced by the works of Ruskin, William Morris and the Arts and Crafts Movement. The example of the Finnish architects Eliel Saarinen and Lars Sonck, who studied vernacular buildings in Karelia, was also important, and it was in imitation of these that Kós toured Transylvania with his associates, studying and recording the village architecture. The result was the development of an individual style derived from Finnish architectural trends and Transylvanian folk architecture. The ...


M. N. Sokolov


(b Pokrovskaya sloboda [now Engels], Saratov region, Feb 11, 1889; d Moscow, May 31, 1940).

Russian illustrator, draughtsman and printmaker. He studied at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture (1904–5 and 1907–10) under Sergey Ivanov, Abram Arkhipov, Konstantin Korovin and Valentin Serov, and at Simon Holosy’s art school in Munich (1903). He was a member of the Four Arts Society of Artists from 1925. He originally worked in Saratov (1918–21) as a stage designer, poster artist and designer of monumental propaganda stagings, after which he moved to Moscow and concentrated on book illustration and graphic art.

Kravchenko’s style is basically Neo-romantic grotesque, impressive in its dynamics, intricate contrasts and spirited pictorialism. He was therefore most successful with illustrations of Romantic writers (e.g. Nikolay Gogol’, E. T. A. Hoffmann, Victor Hugo and Stefan Zweig). He preferred wood-engraving, using which he created his most successful illustrations, for Gogol’s Portret (‘Portrait’, 1929 edn) and for Hoffmann’s Meister Floh (Povelitel’ Blokh...


Jeremy Howard


(b Moscow, Feb 1, 1865; d Leningrad [now St Petersburg], July 1941).

Russian printmaker, illustrator and teacher. She first studied painting at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture (1890–95), then settled in Paris (1895–1914), where she initially entered the Académie Vitty and began to be influenced by the Pont-Aven school (e.g. Breton Woman in Le Pouldu, 1897; St Petersburg, Soshal’skaya priv. col.). By 1902 Kruglikova had taken up etching under the guidance of Victor Roux-Champion (1871–1953). Experimenting in colour aquatints, she excelled in decorative landscape compositions. From 1906 she began to teach, at La Pallette and in her own studio on Rue Boissonade; her students included Maksimilian Voloshin, Veniamin Belkin (1884–1951), Ivan Yefimov (1878–1959) and Matvey Dobrov (1877–1958). In 1909 she turned to monotype as her foremost medium and in this attained her most expressive and original painterly effect (e.g. The Grand Fountains at Versailles and Tango at Luna-Park...