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Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1927, in Takaoka, Toyama Prefecture; died 2001.

Print artist (woodblock).

Kazumi Amano graduated from Takaoka High School of Industrial Art in 1945. In 1950 he studied with Shiko Murakata, a renowned graphic arts master in Japan. After 1968 Amano visited the United States on several occasions and moved there to teach, then settled in New York in ...


Tadashi Kobayashi

[ Mori ]

( fl Edo [now Tokyo], 1760–94; d c. 1794).

Japanese print designer and book illustrator . He may have been a pupil of the ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’) artist Ishikawa Yukimoto. He is principally known for prints of the following types: hosōban (‘narrow format’, c. 320×150 mm); yakushae (‘pictures of actors’) and bijinga (‘pictures of beautiful women’). In its eclecticism, his style resembles that of his contemporaries, Katsukawa Shunshō ( see Katsukawa family, §1 ) and Suzuki Harunobu , who incorporated a lyricism with a naturalistic depiction of the subject. In 1770 Bunchō collaborated with Harunobu and Shunshō to produce Ehon butai ōgi (‘Picture book of stage fans’; untraced), which featured a new type of yakushae, yakusha nigaoe (‘pictures of likenesses of actors’) and challenged the traditional dominance of theatre illustration by the Torii family school. In Ehon butai ōgi, Bunchō depicted onnagata (kabuki actors playing female roles), while Shunshō illustrated kata keyaki (kabuki villains). Bunchō abandoned ...


Donald A. Rosenthal

(b Bordeaux, July 16, 1804; d Paris, Feb 18, 1868).

French painter, illustrator and writer. His early training was as a theatrical scene painter and a designer of lithographic illustrations. In Bordeaux he studied with Pierre Lacour (ii) (1778–1859) and worked with Thomas Olivier (1772–1839), chief scene designer at the Grand-Théâtre. He subsequently studied in Paris in the studio of the landscape and history painter Julien-Michel Gué (1789–1843) and worked for the decorators of the Théâtre Italien.

From 1827 Dauzats provided lithographic designs for Isidore-Justin-Séverin Taylor’s series Voyages pittoresques et romantiques dans l’ancienne France (1820–78). He travelled in the French provinces, particularly Champagne, Dauphiné and Languedoc, often sketching the medieval monuments that had come into vogue during the Romantic period.

Dauzats also collaborated on lithographs for many other publications, including Taylor’s Voyage en Orient. For this last project Dauzats travelled to Egypt, Syria, Palestine and Turkey in 1830, a trip that he described in his book ...


Israeli, 20th century, male.

Active from 1948 active in Israel.

Born 16 December 1908, in Bucharest.

Painter, engraver, poster artist, graphic designer, decorative designer. Designs for tapestries, and stained glass windows.

He was an architecture student at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where he later studied painting at the Scandinavian Academy and at the Académie Julian ...


Tadashi Kobayashi

[Suzuki Hozumi; Shikojin, Chōeiken]

(b ?Edo [now Tokyo], ?1725; d Edo, 1770).

Japanese printmaker, book illustrator and painter. A central figure in the development of ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’) woodblock printmaking during the mid-Edo (1600–1868) period (see Japan §X 3., (iii)), Harunobu’s most important contribution was the introduction of the first full-colour printing technique to Japan. Stylistically, the new image of feminine beauty that Harunobu created in his bijinga (‘pictures of beautiful women’) single-sheet prints influenced a generation of ukiyoe artists. Like many Edo period ukiyoe masters, Harunobu left few clues to his identity. He was probably born into the chōnin (merchant and artisan) class. An entry referring to Harunobu’s death in the Nishikawaka kakochō (‘Death registry of the Nishikawa family’) indicates that he had a close association with the family of the Kyoto ukiyoe artist Nishikawa Sukenobu. His treatment of trees, shrubs and rocks in his bird-and-flower (kachō) painting on folding screens (...


Masato Naitō

[Iwakubo Kinemon; Kikō; Kyōsai]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1780; d Edo, 1850).

Japanese printmaker and book illustrator. He initially studied painting with Kanō Yōsen (1735–1808), the head of the Kobikichō branch of the Kanō school and okaeshi (official painter) to the Tokugawa shogunate. Together with Teisai Hokuba (1771–1844), Hokkei was one of Katsushika Hokusais best students (see Japan §X 3., (iii), (d)). He made his artistic debut in ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’) circles c. 1800, producing illustrations for sharebon (comic novels, usually licentious), hanashibon (story books) and kyōkabon (books of ‘crazy verse’). His main period of activity, however, was in the 1820s and 30s. He continued to illustrate kyōka books, but his most outstanding works are kyōka surimono (‘printed objects’; deluxe prints). His representative piece from this period is his illustrated edition of Rokujuen’s [Ishikawa Masamochi] (1753–1830) kokkeibon (humorous tales of urban life), Hokuri jūniji (‘The twelve hours of the northern village’, a euphemism for the Yoshiwara pleasure quarter). Hokkei produced few ...


Joan H. O’Mara

Japanese paintings or woodblock prints depicting famous poets and poetesses often accompanied by the inscription of their names, with or without additional biographical information, and representative verses. By integrating calligraphy, poetry and painting in a single format, kasen’e (‘pictures of poetic immortals’) illustrate well the close interrelationship between these three art forms.

Originally the poets and poetesses designated in kasen’e as sages or ‘immortals’ (kasen) were accomplished masters of waka, the 31-syllable Japanese poetic form (also called tanka). According to tradition, a debate over the merits of various waka poets led the poet and critic Fujiwara no Kintō (966–1041) to name 31 men and 5 women from the Nara (ad 710–94) and Heian (794–1185) periods as ‘poetic immortals’. Although the kasen were selected, canonized and anthologized during the Heian period, the earliest surviving depictions date from the Kamakura period (1185–1333...


Japanese, 17th – 18th century, male.

Born 1664, in Osaka; died 1729.

Print artist, poster artist.

Torii Kiyonobu was the son of the poster designer Kiyomoto, who had moved with his family to Edo in 1687. He was the real founder of the Torii school after succeeding his father in ...


[Iwase Samuru; Rissai, Seisai, Santō Kyōden]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1761; d Edo, 1816).

Japanese print designer, book illustrator and writer. Together with Kitao Masayoshi (1764–1824) and Kubo Shunman, he was one of Kitao Shigemasa most brilliant students. He made his début in ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’) in 1778 with his illustrations for the kibyōshi (‘yellow cover books’; comic novels) Kaichō ryaku no meguriai. During the next few years he produced illustrations for popular novels, in the manner of other artists in the Kitao studio. At the same time he began to design single-sheet prints, including yakushae (‘pictures of actors’). In the early 1780s Masanobu illustrated extravagant ehon (‘picture books’) and kyōka (‘crazy verse’) books and also produced nishikie (‘brocade pictures’; full-colour prints) series of bijinga (‘pictures of beautiful women’). In 1783 he published his most famous work, Seirō meikun jihitsushū (‘Collection of writings of the wise ruler of the greenhouses’; woodblock-print; London, BM, which consists of 14 tate ōban...


Juliann Wolfgram


(b 1686; d 1764).

Japanese print designer, painter, book illustrator and publisher. Although Masanobu’s artistic career spanned six decades, Edo-period (1600–1868) documents reveal little about his life. However, his prolific artistic output and technical innovations make him one of the leading figures of the early history of Japanese woodblock printing and ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’, see Japan §X 2., (iii)). He began his career in 1701 with a copy of an album of courtesans known as Keisei ehon (‘Yoshiwara picture book’; Chicago, IL, A. Inst.) by Torii Kiyonobu I (see Torii family, §1). His earliest sumizurie (‘black-and-white pictures’) were based on the subject-matter and style of the Torii school and were published in sets of 12 large prints (ōban) or in illustrated books (ehon). Masanobu illustrated no less than 19 novelettes and produced over 30 ehon (see Japan §X 2.). During the formative stage of his career, Masanobu also wrote popular fiction, which led him to develop a pictorial means of conveying literary wit and humour. Through the production of visual parodies of classical themes, known as ...


Japanese, 18th century, male.

Active in Osakac.1760-1780.

Print artist.

Masatsugu was an illustrator and portrait painter who also produced shun-ga (erotic prints).


Israeli, 20th century, male.

Born 1905, in Poland (formerly Austro-Hungaria); died 1988, in Tel Aviv.

Painter, lithographer, poster artist. Scenes with figures, figures. Stage sets, murals.

Boston (Fine Art Mus.)

Jerusalem (Israel Mus.)

Munich (Stadtmus.)

Ostend (Mus. voor Moderne Kunst)

Salzburg (Rupertinum)

Tel Aviv (MA)...


Masato Naitō

[Kitabatake Kanetomo; Karan, Kōsuisai]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1739; d Edo, 1820).

Japanese print designer and book illustrator. He was unusual among ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’) artists because he was self-taught. His family ran a bookshop, and the young Shigemasa probably learnt his skills from studying illustrations in books sold in the family shop. His first works gained recognition during the late 1750s. Extant early works are benizurie (‘pink-printed pictures’; two-colour prints) and yakushae (‘pictures of actors’), but his principal output is in book illustration, which he practised throughout his career and which became the speciality of the Kitao school (see Japan §X 2., (iii)), of which he was the founder.

In 1765 ukiyoe printing was revolutionized by the introduction of nishikie (‘brocade pictures’; full-colour prints) by Suzuki Harunobu and his contemporaries. Shigemasa also produced nishikie, and until the mid-1770s his style showed the influence of the yakushae of Torii Kiyomasa (see Torii family, §2) and the ...


Susumu Matsudaira

[Uemon; Jitokusō, Jitokusai, Bunkado, Ukyō, Saiō]

(b Kyoto, 1671; d Kyoto, 1750).

Japanese woodblock print designer, book illustrator and painter. Unlike most ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’) artists, who were based in Edo (now Tokyo), Sukenobu lived in the imperial capital Kyoto. He studied painting with Kanō Einō (1631–97), and possibly with Tosa Mitsusuke (see Tosa family §(1)). He first produced book illustrations for the celebrated Kyoto publisher Hachimonjiya Jishō (d 1745) in 1699. The earliest works attributed to Sukenobu are Yakusha kuchijamisen (‘Actor humming shamisen tune’; 3 vols; Tokyo, Waseda U.), a Yakusha hyōbanki (‘Record of the reputation of actors’; a discussion of actors’ performances and appearance) and the script for a kabuki play, Amidagaike Shin Teramachi (‘Amida pond in Shin Teramachi’). His earliest signed work is Shin kanninki (‘New patience story’; 7 vols; Tokyo, N. Diet Lib.), an ukiyo zōshi (‘tales of the floating world’; popular fiction). In the 1710s Sukenobu continued his close association with ...


Mark H. Sandler

[Nishimura Shigenobu, Magosaburō; Meijōdō, Shūha]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1711; d Edo, 1785).

Japanese painter, print designer and book illustrator. One of the finest ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’) printmakers active in the mid-18th century, Toyonobu was born into a samurai family. He may have studied under the printmaker Nishimura Shigenaga (?1697–1756), and many scholars identify him with the artist who styled himself Nishimura Magosaburō (before 1730) and Nishimura Shigenobu (1730–47). From 1747 until the end of his career as a print designer, he worked under the name Ishikawa Toyonobu. In the mid-1760s he inherited from his father-in-law an inn in Edo’s Kodenmachō district. As innkeeper, he employed the name that was used by successive heads of the family, Nukaya Shichibei. He largely abandoned his artistic activities in the last two decades of his life. Toyonobu’s early works reflect the influence of the Torii family school. Thus, his yakushae (‘pictures of actors’) and bijinga (‘pictures of beautiful women’) of the 1730s and early 1740s feature robust, columnar figures with heads held erect. His manner later changed considerably, and after ...


Turkish, 20th century, male.

Born 1887, in Aralyk; died 1942, in Vologda.

Painter, engraver, poster artist, graphic designer, watercolourist. Seascapes.

Nikolai Tyrsa studied at the academy of art in St Petersburg from 1905 to 1909 and with Leon Bakst at the E. Zvantseva School from 1907 to 1909...


German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 12 December 1872, in Bremen; died 14 June 1942, in Karaghenta (Kazakhstan).

Painter, draughtsman, engraver (etching), illustrator, graphic designer. Portraits, landscapes. Designs for tapestries, ex-libris plates, designs (furniture/jewellery).

Worpswede Artists' Colony.

Heinrich Vogeler was a pupil of Peter J.T. Janssen and de Kampf, at the Kunstakademie of Düsseldorf (1890-1893). He travelled in the Netherlands and in Italy. After a period spent in Paris he settled finally in 1895 at Worpswede, rejoining in this village the painter Fritz Mackensen who discovered the site in 1884, then Otto Modersohn. He bought the farm Berkenhoff where he installed a printing press. Worpswede became in a short time a colony of artists breaking away from academicism, who had great success in exhibitions at Bremen and Munich. He became friends with the poet Rainer Maria Rilke in 1898, who was also staying there. His house at Berkenhoff became a meeting point and a real meeting place of culture for the colony of artists who encountered each other in the studios, among others, Paula Becker and Clara Westhoff, Rilke's future wife (also known under the name of Rilke-Westhoff). In 1908 he founded with his brother a decorative painter and poet, the Studio for development and furnishing in Worpswede (Worpswede Werkstätte) at Tamstedt, near Bremen. In 1914 he enlisted as a volunteer in the army during World War I but ended by declaring himself an objector to war; he was discharged but had to spend some time in a psychiatric hospital in Bremen. Later he became a militant Communist and created a Communist community on his farm which was transformed into a colony for children of the ...


Wu Hao  

Chinese, 20th century, male.

Born 1931, in Nanjing.

Painter, sculptor, engraver (wood), graphic designer.

Wu Hao was a member of many associations, including the Association of Oriental Painting and the Modern Graphic Society of China among others. He took part in exhibitions in China, Taiwan and Europe, including, notably, the Exhibition of International Artists in Italy, and won many prizes. He often combines western techniques with subjects from Chinese folklore....