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Article

Lebanese, 20th century, male.

Active from 1947 in France.

Born 22 November 1926, in El Mhaidthe, near Bikfaya; died 9 April 2004, in Paris.

Painter, engraver.

Shafic Abboud set out to become an engineer, but broke off his studies in his third year at the French school of engineering in Beirut in order to study drawing and composition at the Académie Libanaise des Beaux-Arts in ...

Article

Indian, 20th century, male.

Born 1914, in either Kishoreganj or Mymensingh (both now in Bangladesh); died 28 May 1976, in Dhaka.

Draughtsman, engraver, painter, printmaker.

Zainul Abedin studied at the government school of arts and crafts in Calcutta (now Kolkata) from 1933 to 1938, and was later a teacher there. His work first came to be noticed when he produced a series of drawings of the Bengal Famine of ...

Article

Jonathan M. Bloom

revised by Sheila S. Blair

(b Kishorganj, East Pakistan [now Bangladesh], Nov 18, 1914; d Dhaka, May 28, 1976).

Bangladeshi painter and printmaker. He studied painting at the Government School of Art in Calcutta from 1933 to 1938, and then taught there until 1947. His work first attracted public attention in 1943 when he produced a powerful series of drawings of the Bengal famine. After the partition of India and Pakistan in 1947 he worked as chief designer in the Pakistan government’s Information and Publications Division, and also became principal of the Institute of Fine Arts in Dhaka (later known as the Bangladesh College of Arts and Crafts), which he helped to found in 1948 and where he remained until 1967. From 1951 to 1952 he visited Europe and, in addition to exhibiting his work at several locations, worked at the Slade School of Art in London, and represented Pakistan at the UNESCO art conference in Venice in 1952. An exhibition of his work in Lahore in 1953 became the starting-point for a series of ...

Article

Ado  

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Active in France since 1962.

Born 23 December 1936, in Tokyo; died 1994, in Paris.

Painter, screen printer.

Ado was the son of Sato Kei. In 1960 he graduated from Keio University, Tokyo, majoring in the history of aesthetics. He went to Paris in ...

Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1939, in Tokyo.

Print artist, painter, draughtsman, collage artist.

Aigasa Masayoshi graduated from the Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music in 1962 and has been a member of the Japan Print Association since 1969. Aigasa’s style, which derives from fantasy art, is characterised by meticulous drawing. His series ...

Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1878; died 1953.

Painter, print artist.

First Thursday Society.

Akamatsu Rinsaku was a member of the First Thursday Society, a group of print artists founded by Onchi Koshiro. His painting Night Train (1902), painted at a time when the railway was assuming increasing importance in Japan, made his name. He was included in the exhibition ...

Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1922, in Hokkaido.

Painter, print artist, lithographer.

Hiroshi Akana was a pupil of Inokuma Gen-Ichiro at the college of industrial arts in Tokyo. He began to exhibit in 1946 and took part in several Tokyo Biennales. He became a member of Shinseisa Ku, a group begun by his mentor. He became a teacher at the University of Chiba. He took American nationality....

Article

Marcella Nesom-Sirhandi

(b Delhi, India, Feb 4, 1941; d Lahore, Pakistan, Jan 18, 1999).

Pakistani painter, sculptor and printmaker. Educated in Pakistan and abroad, he has consciously and successfully synthesized Eastern and Western aesthetic traditions. In 1963, a year after graduating from the National College of Arts, Lahore, he joined the faculty as a lecturer in art, later becoming a professor and head of the Department of Fine Arts. His studies abroad have included post-graduate work in London (1966–7, 1968–9) and the United States (1987–9).

Like many of his colleagues, Zahoor was influenced by his mentor, Shakir ‛Ali, principal of the National College of Art from 1961 to 1975. Both artists were motivated by art history, philosophy and aesthetics. Zahoor’s non-figurative paintings of the 1960s evolved into tangible—though not always realistic—images addressing the dualities of space and time, East and West. Most of his triptychs and single canvases were conceived within a grid that provides a stabilizing structure for their compositions. This grid refers to Zahoor’s admiration for the American artist ...

Article

Turkish, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 1932, in Istanbul.

Painter, engraver.

Erdal Alantar studied at Istanbul’s school of fine art from 1949 to 1956 and followed courses in fresco painting at Florence’s school of fine art in 1958. He has lived in Paris since 1959, working as a steel worker in the suburb of Ivry from 1966 to 1967. Since 1972, he has taught fine arts....

Article

Patrick Conner

(b Maidstone, Kent, April 10, 1767; d Maidstone, July 23, 1816).

English painter, engraver, draughtsman and museum official. The son of a coachbuilder, he was apprenticed to Julius Caesar Ibbetson before enrolling in 1784 at the Royal Academy Schools, London. In 1792 he accepted the post (previously declined by Ibbetson) of draughtsman to George, 1st Earl Macartney, on his embassy to China. As the embassy returned by inland waterway from Beijing to Canton, Alexander made detailed sketches of the Chinese hinterland—something achieved by no British artist previously and by very few subsequently. These sketches formed the basis for finished watercolours (e.g. Ping-tze Muen, the Western Gate of Peking, 1799; London, BM) and for numerous engravings by both himself and others. For over fifty years his images of China were widely borrowed by book illustrators and by interior decorators in search of exotic themes.

Alexander was also a keen student of British medieval antiquities, undertaking several tours in order to make drawings of churches and monuments; many of these were reproduced in the antiquarian publications of ...

Article

Dutch, 20th century, male.

Born 18 January 1886, in Medan (Sumatra), Indonesia; died 1969, in Amsterdam.

Painter, engraver. Figures, landscapes, still-lifes. Wall decorations.

Gruppe Progressiver Künstler (Progressive Art Group), Socialistische Kunstenaars Kring (SKK) (Socialist Artists' Circle).

Peter Alma trained at the academy of fine art in The Hague between 1904 and 1906. Afterwards, he was influenced in succession by Impressionism and then Cubism. While living in Paris in 1914, he frequently mixed with Fernand Léger and Diego Rivera. He worked in Amsterdam. He belonged to the Dutch group in Paris with Conrad Kickert, Piet Mondrian and Lodewijk Schelfout. He exhibited during 1912 and 1913 at the Moderne Kunstkring in Amsterdam, the Sonderbund Ausstellung in Cologne and at the Salon des Artistes Indépendants in Paris....

Article

Dutch, 20th century, male.

Born 30 November 1894, in Medan (Sumatra), Indonesia.

Engraver.

Frits van Alphen worked in Haarlem.

Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1927, in Takaoka, Toyama Prefecture; died 2001.

Print artist (woodblock).

Kazumi Amano graduated from Takaoka High School of Industrial Art in 1945. In 1950 he studied with Shiko Murakata, a renowned graphic arts master in Japan. After 1968 Amano visited the United States on several occasions and moved there to teach, then settled in New York in ...

Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1929, in Aomori.

Printmaker (woodblock), Hanga.

Kunihiro Amano had little formal training. He attended courses at the Musashino University of Art and is a member of the Japan Print Society. In 1957 Amano was represented in the Tokyo International Print Biennale and his work was selected to appear in the Contemporary Japanese Print Exhibition in Chicago. He was selected for the 1961 Paris Young Artists Biennale....

Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1944, in Tokushima.

Print artist.

Shige Amano studied art at the University of Osaka and then at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He participated in the Salon des Indépendants and the Print Biennale from 1970 to 1973. In 1970...

Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1916, in Aichi.

Painter, print artist (woodcuts). Figure compositions.

Mikie Ando was a pupil of the print artist Kitagawa Tamiji. He exhibited his work from 1941. He was a member of the Nika Kai . He painted large realistic pictures with corresponding ideological aims....

Article

French, 20th century, female.

Born 29 March 1943, in Perezac-le-Blanc (Corrèze).

Painter, sculptor, lithographer, screen printer. Scenes with figures, mythological subjects, figures, nudes.

Anne-Lan's father is Vietnamese and her mother is French. Both are doctors. She spent her childhood in the Limousin region. She studied at the École Nationale des Arts Appliqués in Paris. She lives and works in Paris....

Article

Japanese, 18th–19th century, male.

Born 1748, in Sukagawa; died 1822.

Painter, engraver (etching). Landscapes.

Yoga School.

Denzen Aodo belonged to the Yoga School, but studied Nanga painting under Gessen. He later became interested in Western painting. Aodo was a landscape painter who served Lord Matsudaira....

Article

Margo Machida

(b New York, Aug 16, 1949).

American printmaker and installation artist. Born and raised in New York City, Arai, a third-generation Japanese American printmaker, mixed-media artist, public artist and cultural activist, studied art at the Philadelphia College of Art and The Printmaking Workshop in New York. Since the 1970s, her diverse projects have ranged from individual works to large-scale public commissions (see Public art in the 21st century). She has designed permanent public works, including an interior mural commemorating the African burial ground in lower Manhattan and an outdoor mural for Philadelphia’s Chinatown. Other works include Wall of Respect for Women (1974), a mural on New York’s Lower East Side, which was a collaboration between Arai and women from the local community. Her art has been exhibited in such venues as the Bronx Museum of the Arts, the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Museum of Modern Art, International Center for Photography, P.S.1 Museum, the Brooklyn Museum, the Museum of Contemporary Hispanic Art, all New York and the Library of Congress, Washington, DC. She is the recipient of awards and fellowships from National Endowment for the Arts, New York Foundation for the Arts, and Joan Mitchell Foundation....

Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1 June 1937, in Tokyo; died 1984.

Print artist.

Tetsuo Araki studied at Musashino Art University in Tokyo. Subsequently he went to Paris and worked in the studio of the print artist Friedlaender. As is frequently the case with print artists whose works are reproduced in multiple copies, Araki’s prints have appeared in a large number of group print exhibitions throughout Europe....