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French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1855, in Gruissan (Aude); died 1936, in Avignon.

Painter. Landscapes.

Bill settled in Toulon as a painter and photographer around 1884, then in Avignon where he studied under the landscape artist Paul Sain. From 1888, he regularly contributed works to the Salon des Artistes Français, where he received an honourable mention in ...

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Born 31 January 1942, in Northwood (Middlesex); died 19 February 1994, in London.

Painter, filmmaker, designer, author, poet. Landscapes, townscapes. Designs for stage sets, films, gardens.

Derek Jarman studied English, History and Art History at King's College in London before going on to study fine art at the Slade School of Art in London (...

Article

Lagos  

David Aradeon

[Yoruba Eko]

Capital city of Nigeria, on the Gulf of Guinea. Aerial photography reveals a mosaic of land use patterns: large traditional compound spaces in such neighbourhoods as Oke Arin and Oshodi are separated, by British urban planning norms, from the ‘garden city’, one-acre lots in Ikoyi and Ikeja, where the colonial officers lived. Tenuous roads and bridges link Lagos Island with the mainland, including Apapa, through Iddo Island, on which the railway terminal and old Ijora power station are sited.

Lagos has a dual heritage, based first on the Idejo, land-owning chiefs and descendants of the Awori Yoruba founders from Ife, and then on the Edos (see Edo), who established a military camp in the second half of the 16th century at Enu Owa. The crowning of an Oba of Lagos, or the capping of any white cap chief, depends on the performance of sacred rites at Enu Owa for both spiritual blessing and legal validity. Edo rule also instituted a political and social structure, of which the Prime Minister (Eletu Odibo) is the most important official....

Article

Deborah A. Middleton

The first national parks were conceived to preserve the natural wonders of a primeval American wilderness that served as inspiration for American painters and photographers. American landscape architecture and park design were central to the emergence of the National Park System at the end of the 19th century, and the permanent conservation of threatened areas of natural beauty. Photography and landscape painting strongly influenced the aesthetic appreciation of unspoiled nature. Photography informed the construction of pictorial spaces, distances, situated views in unexpected places, lighting, angle of view, framing of the view. The overwhelming experience of America’s natural places influenced painters, such as Thomas Cole, Thomas Moran and Albert Bierstadt, and naturalists, such as John Muir, whose emphasis on the transcendental vision of wilderness began to shape a desire to conserve these places as national symbols of America. Moran’s paintings of Yellowstone Park were influential in designating Yellowstone as America’s first national park on ...