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French, 18th–19th century, male.

Born 1765, in Chalon-sur-Saône, France; died 5 July 1833, in Chalon-sur-Saône, France.

Inventor, photographer (heliographs). Nature, landscapes.

Joseph Niépce was born to a land-holding family in the Burgundy region of France. In his youth, Niépce studied physics and chemistry and had a capacity for engineering. Before settling in Chalon to run Le Gras, the family estate, Niépce pursued a career in military service, joining the revolutionary army in ...


French inventor. Niépce and his brother Claude (1763–1828) were little-known scientists who developed a functioning internal combustion engine and a sugar extraction process, both of which were commercial failures. Their fortune became depleted by a lifetime of experimenting. Harmant (1980) has suggested that their ...


American, 18th – 19th century, male.

Active in New York, Chile, Peru, Bolivia, and Panama.

Born in Bloomfield (New Jersey).

Painter, engraver, photographer. Landscapes, portraits.

Charles V. Ward was the son of Caleb Ward and the brother of Jacob Caleb Ward. At the end of the 1820s he lived in Bloomfield and New York. Ward established himself as a landscape painter in New York around ...