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Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Active from 1511 to 1540.

Born in Sassoferrato (Ancona); died, in Cupramontana (Ancona).

Painter, sculptor, architect. Religious subjects.

Many of Pietro Paolo Agabiti's paintings decorate the churches of his native town. Santa Maria del Piano has a Virgin with St Catherine and St John the Baptist...

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time.

Astrology developed into a scientific branch of learning in ancient Greece, but because of the opposition of the Church Fathers it was transmitted to early medieval Europe in only fragmentary form in technically unsophisticated textbooks and popular divinatory genres. Literary and scientific texts provided more general ideas about the nature and attributes of the planets which were influential on later iconography. The first significant astrological images appear in 11th-century illustrated astronomical texts (e.g. London, BL, Cotton MS. Tiberius BV), which were acquired and produced by monasteries to aid with time-keeping and the construction of the Christian calendar....

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Born shortly before 1536, in Cremona; died c. 1591.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, sculptor, architect. Religious subjects, figures, portraits.

Antonio Campi was the son of Galeazzo and brother of Giulio and Vincenzo Campi. He worked first with his father and later at the studio of his brother Giulio. Before moving to Milan in 1561 he had worked in many different towns, notably Piacenza, Lodi, Brescia, Mantua, Cremona and Rome....

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Born 1509, in Gandino near Bergamo; died 1579, in Madrid, in 1569 according to the Larousse Dictionary.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman (including wash), architect, decorative artist, art restorer. Religious subjects, historical subjects, mythological subjects. Wall decorations, frescoes.

After a study trip to Rome, paid for by his protector Tobia Pallavicini, Giovanni Battista Castello (Il Bergamasco) produced a series of works in Genoa and Bergamo. His best-known works in Bergamo include the fresco ...

Article

Spanish, 16th century, male.

Born 1538, in Cordova; died 28 July 1608, in Cordova.

Painter, sculptor, architect. Religious subjects, portraits.

School of Cordova.

Pablo de Céspedes initially studied theology, then Oriental languages. He began painting during a trip to Rome, under the direction of one of Michelangelo's pupils. While he was in Rome he painted a number of frescoes in various chapels, which were so successful that he was nicknamed the 'Spanish Raphael'. He was offered a canonicate in his home town and returned to Cordova in 1575 or 1577, before settling there permanently after a second trip to Rome in 1583. It was there that he painted his ...

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Born 1530, in Perugia; died 1576, in Perugia.

Painter, sculptor (bronze/marble/cast iron/clay), draughtsman, goldsmith, architect. Religious subjects, historical subjects, mythological subjects. Groups, statues, low reliefs.

Vincenzo Danti was the brother of Girolamo and Egnazio Danti. He worked initially in the goldsmiths' trade, in whose guild he enrolled in ...

Article

Jean  

10th – 11th century, male.

Born between 960 and 970, in Italy or in Greece; died 1016, in Liège.

Painter, sculptor, architect. Religious subjects. Church decoration.

Jean was employed by the emperor Otto III in 980 and 1002. He was rewarded for work on the chapel of Charlemagne by the gift of a bishopric in Italy. He returned to Germany, then went to Liège where he became a friend of the bishop Baldéric II, who encouraged him to decorate the choir of St James' Abbey. He built the church of St Andrew in Liège. This may be the same man as the painter Johannes who was working at this period at Nepi....

Article

Italian, 15th – 16th century, male.

Active from 1515 in France.

Born 15 April 1452, in Anchiano, near Vinci; died 2 May 1519, in Clos-Lucé, near Amboise, France.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman, architect, engineer. Religious subjects, mythological subjects, portraits, topographic subjects, anatomical studies.

Leonardo da Vinci was the illegitimate son of the Florentine notary Ser Piero da Vinci, who married Albiera di Giovanni Amadori, the daughter of a patrician family, in the year Leonardo was born. Little is known about the artist’s natural mother, Caterina, other than that five years after Leonardo’s birth she married an artisan from Vinci named Chartabriga di Piero del Veccha. Leonardo was raised in his father’s home in Vinci by his paternal grandfather, Ser Antonio. Giorgio Vasari discusses Leonardo’s childhood at length, noting his aptitude for drawing and his taste for natural history and mathematics. Probably around 1470, Leonardo’s father apprenticed him to Andrea del Verrocchio; two years later, Leonardo’s name appears in the register of Florentine painters. Although officially a painter in his own right, Leonardo remained for a further five years or so in Verrocchio’s workshop, where Lorenzo di Credi and Pietro Perugino numbered among his fellow students....

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Born 6 March 1475, in Caprese, near Arezzo; died 18 February 1564, in Rome.

Painter, draughtsman, sculptor, architect, engineer, poet. Religious subjects, mythological subjects, nudes, portraits.

At the time of Michelangelo’s birth, his father, Ludovico, son of Leonardo Buonarroti Simoni, was resident magistrate for the Republic of Florence in the small, fortified town of Caprese, but soon after the family returned to Florence. Michelangelo lost his mother when he was six years old, and the family’s financial situation was poor, though previous generations of Buonarroti had been rich and powerful and among the ‘priori’, or governing councillors, of Florence. Michelangelo’s father would therefore have preferred a business career for his son, but Michelangelo was encouraged by his friend Francesco Granacci in his artistic ambitions. He prevailed over his father, and on 1 April 1488, at the age of 13, he joined the large workshop of the painters Domenico and Davide Ghirlandaio. His apprenticeship agreement bound him to them for three years....

Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Died 1365.

Painter, fresco artist, sculptor, architect. Religious subjects.

Nardo di Cione was probably the father of Mariotto di Nardo, and definitely the elder brother of Orcagna Andrea di Cione. He is mentioned in Florence, where he worked with his brother on the Strozzi chapel in the church of S Maria Novella, executing scenes on ...

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Born c. 1500, in Siena; died between 1571 and 1573.

Painter, miniaturist, sculptor, architect. Religious subjects, mythological subjects.

Bartolommeo Neroni was the pupil and son-in-law of Bazzi Soloma.

The library in Genoa has a book of hours in which he painted miniatures. Some churchs in Toscana have altar paintings by him....

Article

Pomposa  

Charles B. McClendon

Italian former Benedictine abbey near the mouth of the Po River and 45 km north of Ravenna in the province of Emilia Romagna. Although first documented in ad 874, a monastic settlement probably existed there at least two centuries earlier. Pomposa rose to prominence in the 10th and 11th centuries through the support of the Holy Roman emperors. Over the course of the 14th century, a notable series of wall paintings in three different buildings were sponsored despite the monastery’s waning fortunes. In 1663 the monastic community was suppressed by papal decree. The site was secularized in 1802 and became property of the Italian state after 1870.

The proportions of the wooden-roofed basilican church, along with the polygonal outline of its main apse, reflect influence from nearby Ravenna and Classe and suggest a date in the 8th or 9th century. An elaborate pavement of mosaic and cut stone (opus sectile...

Article

Raphael  

Italian, 16th century, male.

Born 26 or 28 March 1483, in Urbino; died 6 April 1520, in Rome.

Painter, draughtsman, architect. Religious subjects, portraits. Murals, designs for tapestries.

Raphael was the son of the painter and poet Giovanni Santi (the surname Sanzio, adopted by Giorgio Vasari, is a corruption of the Latin form of Santi), who was connected with the celebrated Montefeltro court of Urbino. This refined upbringing no doubt served Raphael well in befriending potential patrons. A prodigy, he was barely sixteen years old when he joined Perugino’s workshop in 1499 and later worked with Bernardino Pinturicchio on the frescoes for the Biblioteca Piccolomini in Siena. He returned to Urbino and then lived in Florence from 1504 to 1509, an extremely important period during which he encountered Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, and Fra Bartolommeo. From 1509 until his death in 1520, he was the most prolific and successful painter in Rome, a favourite of Pope Julius II (Giuliano della Rovere) and his successor, Pope Leo X (Lorenzo de’ Medici). Much sought after during his lifetime, Raphael was required to fulfil a large number of commissions, which he did by running a sizeable and well-organised workshop. He died of a fever at the age of just 37, leaving a great void in the art world of Rome. He was buried with great ceremony in the Pantheon....

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Born 1544, in Florence; died 21 April 1588, in Mantua.

Painter, sculptor, architect.

Francesco Traballesi painted two altarpieces in the Chiesa de Greci depicting The Annunciation and Christ among the Teachers.

London, 21 April 1982: Portrait of Bartolomeo Sirigatti (1567...

Article

Flemish School, 16th century, male.

Active in Ghent.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman, architect, geographer. Religious subjects, architectural views.

Franciscus van de Velde designed buildings and made sculptures and paintings for the abbey of St Peter near Ghent.

Article

Italian, 15th – 16th century, male.

Born c. 1464, in Treviglio; died 1526, in Milan.

Painter, sculptor, fresco artist, architect. Religious subjects, scenes with figures. Church decoration.

Lombard School.

Bernardino Zenale was a pupil of Vincenzo Foppa. He collaborated with Bernardo Butinoni on the majority of his known compositions, including the polyptych in the church in Treviso, the ...