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Article

4th century, male.

Painter.

Ancient Greek.

Pliny Antenorides was, with Euphranor, a follower of Aristides - though not Aristides the famous painter of the time of Alexander but probably the grandfather of the latter and an architect, sculptor and painter. Nothing is known of the works of Antenorides....

Article

Thorsten Opper

Source of a group of Roman and Greek works of art, in particular a group of Greek bronze sculptures and statuettes. In 1900 sponge-divers discovered the remains of an ancient shipwreck in the sea off the Greek island of Antikythera. In one of the first operations of this kind, they salvaged some its cargo. A new investigation of the wreck site took place in 1976 and succeeded in recovering many further objects, as well as (still unpublished) remains of the hull. All the finds are now in the National Archaeological Museum in Athens. The ship, which must have foundered in the second quarter of the 1st century bc, carried a mixed cargo of ‘antique’ and contemporary bronze and marble statuary, as well as luxury products such as bronze furniture attachments, rare and expensive types of glass, gold ingots etc. It also contained the so-called Antikythera Mechanism, an elaborate type of astrolabe....

Article

4th century, male.

Active in the first half of the 4th century BC.

Painter.

Ancient Greek.

According to Pliny, Aristides the Elder was a pupil of Euxenidas. Some scholars identify him with the sculptor of the same name who was a follower of Polyclitus and therefore from Sicyon. Aristides the painter was more likely from Thebes, and the founder (in Athens?) of a famous school, or perhaps just the initiator of a school in Athens where not only his sons Nicerus and Ariston II were trained, but also Antorides and Euphranor. Later writers criticised Aristides the Elder for his rather harsh colour, but nevertheless recognise that it was he who invented the encaustic technique (which Praxiteles was to perfect). His work marks the introduction of the 'pathetic' in painting (compare with Skopas for sculpture). ...

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time.

Astrology developed into a scientific branch of learning in ancient Greece, but because of the opposition of the Church Fathers it was transmitted to early medieval Europe in only fragmentary form in technically unsophisticated textbooks and popular divinatory genres. Literary and scientific texts provided more general ideas about the nature and attributes of the planets which were influential on later iconography. The first significant astrological images appear in 11th-century illustrated astronomical texts (e.g. London, BL, Cotton MS. Tiberius BV), which were acquired and produced by monasteries to aid with time-keeping and the construction of the Christian calendar....

Article

5th century, male.

Painter, sculptor.

Ancient Greek.

Damophilus worked with Gorgasus on the temple of Ceres, Liber and Libera in Rome around 493 BC. Zeuxis is said to have been his pupil. Some terracottas and paintings attributed to him have been found in Corinth and Etruria....

Article

Dimitris Plantzos

Greek city situated at the foothills of Mt Olympus in northern Greece (district of Pieria), 14 km south of modern city of Katerini. It was an important Macedonian political and cultural centre from the Classical to the Roman periods (6th century bc–4th century ad). By the 6th century bc it seems that the Macedonians were gathering at Dion in order to honour the Olympian gods, chiefly Zeus; according to myth, Deukalion, the only man to survive the flood at the beginning of time, built an altar to Zeus as a sign of his salvation. His sons, Macedon and Magnes, lived in Pieria, near Olympus, and became the mythical ancestors of the Macedonians. The altar allegedly erected by Deukalion remained the centre of the cult life at Dion throughout its history.

King Archelaos of Macedon (c. 413–399 bc) organized athletic and dramatic contests in the framework of the religious celebrations, following the practice of the Greeks in the south, such as at the great sanctuaries of Olympia and Delphi. Philip II (...

Article

7th – 6th century BC, male.

Born on Melos.

Painter, sculptor.

Ancient Greek.

Ecphantus was born on the island of Melos, and left his inscription on a marble column that was taken from there to Venice in 1755. Today it is in Berlin. Nothing definite is known about his abilities as a painter....

Article

Dimitris Plantzos

[Satra]

Greek city situated on the island of Crete, by the north-west foothills of mount Psiloritis (anc. Ida), 30 km south-east of the present-day city of Rethymnon. It was a centre for Aegean and Greek culture from the Prehistoric to the Byzantine periods (4th millennium bc–7th century bc).

Ancient Eleutherna is a typical example of a Cretan polis (city) inhabited continuously from at least from the 9th century bc (the so-called ‘Dark Age’ of Greek history) to the late Roman and Byzantine period (6th–7th century bc). Even before that, archaeological finds suggest the existence of a continuous presence on the site from the late Neolithic (4th millennium bc) through to a flourishing Minoan site of the 3rd to 2nd millennia bc. Although later construction all but eliminated traces of prehistoric architecture, there is still significant evidence to confirm unbroken habitation. In historical times (9th century...

Article

Erillus  

5th century BC, male.

Active during the second half of the 5th century BC.

Painter, sculptor (?).

Ancient Greek.

Erillus, a painter of the Archaic Period, may be the same as a sculptor of the same name and period.

Article

7th century BC, male.

Born c. 7th century BC, in Corinth.

Sculptor, painter.

Ancient Greek.

Eucheir, according to Pliny the Elder, travelled with Damaratus and Eugrammus to Etruria. He was a potter, and can probably be identified with the artist who, according to Aristotle, invented painting in Greece....

Article

4th century BC, male.

Active from 375 to 335 BC.

Born in Corinth.

Painter, sculptor.

Ancient Greek.

Euphranor learned his craft in the workshop of Aristides and lived in Athens, where most of his masterpieces of sculpture are to be seen. On one side of the porch of the Ceramicus in Athens, the 12 divinities are represented, while Theseus and other figures are shown on the other side. In the same spot there was also at one time a painting showing ...

Article

Olga Palagia

(b Isthmia, c. 390 bc; d ?Athens, c. 325 bc).

Greek painter and sculptor. An exact contemporary of Praxiteles, he seems to have been state artist at Athens in the mid-4th century bc, perhaps playing a role comparable to that of Pheidias a century earlier. Along with Nikias, who trained in his workshop, Euphranor was among the foremost members of the 4th-century bc Attic school of painting and was exceptional also in producing marble and bronze statues as well as marble reliefs. Pupil of the painter Aristeides the elder and teacher not only of the painters Leonidas, Antidotos and Charmantides but also of his own son, the sculptor Sostratos, Euphranor also wrote treatises on his painting (On Colours and On Proportions), which were quoted by ancient writers; none of his own paintings survive. His preoccupation with proportions was criticized, and he was considered not quite on a level with Lysippos and Apelles, since the heads of his figures were allegedly rather large for their bodies....

Article

Micon  

5th century, male.

Active at the beginning of the 5th century BC.

Painter, sculptor. Figure compositions, mythological subjects, figures.

Ancient Greek.

Micon, a pupil of Polygnotus, was one of the artists to decorate the Stoa Poikile (Painted Stoa) in the Agora in Athens. He is said to have painted scenes representing the ...

Article

Mikon  

C. Hobey-Hamsher

(fl earlier 5th century bc).

Greek painter and sculptor. He came from Athens and although none of his work survives, paintings by Mikon and his great contemporary Polygnotos decorated several buildings erected at the instigation of the Athenian general Kimon (c. 512–449 bc). An Amazonomachy depicting the battle between the Amazons and the Athenians, led by Theseus, which hung in the Stoa Poikile (Painted Stoa) was certainly by Mikon, and some ancient authors also ascribed to him the most famous painting in that building, depicting the Battle of Marathon, although it was generally attributed to Panainos. Pausanias (Guide to Greece I.xvii.2–4) saw three or four paintings in the Sanctuary of Theseus, built on the south side of the Agora after Kimon had brought Theseus’ bones back from Skyros (474/3 bc): an Amazonomachy, a Centauromachy, Theseus Recovering the Ring of Minos from the Sea and perhaps Theseus in the Underworld with Peirithoos...

Article

3rd century, male.

Painter.

Ancient Greek.

Milon was a pupil of the sculptor Phyromachus.

Article

5th century, male.

Born c. 490 BC, in Athens; died c. 432 BC.

Sculptor, painter, architect.

Ancient Greek.

Phidias is a particularly difficult sculptor to describe, especially since no works exist that can be attributed to him with absolute certainty. Some of his statues are known through copies or written descriptions. His main body of work, the Parthenon sculptures, has become badly deteriorated and in any case was executed for the most part by assistants, even if they were following his plans. Yet, although he is difficult to pin down in detail, his figure looms large through the example of his major works. There is something exceptional and larger than life about Phidias, both in his choice of statues and in the programmes of work he was to tackle, such as the Parthenon....

Article

Susan B. Matheson

(fl c. 475–450 bc).

Greek wall painter and sculptor. He came from a family of painters, which included his father and teacher, Aglaophon (see Harpokration: Lexicon ‘Polygnotos’; Plato: Gorgias 448b), his brother, Aristophon, and, probably, his son or nephew, Aglaophon (Pliny: XXXV.xxxvi.60). Though born on the island of Thasos, Polygnotos worked in Athens and Delphi and became an Athenian citizen, allegedly as a result of producing without renumeration a painting for the Stoa Poikile (Painted Stoa; c. 460 bc) or another Athenian building (see Harpokration). If so, he was perhaps aided by the Athenian statesman, Kimon (c. 512–449 bc), who may have been his patron. Kimon’s sister, Elpinike, was said to have been his mistress (Plutarch: Kimon iv.5), and it was Kimon’s brother-in-law, Peisianax, who founded the Stoa Poikile. According to Pliny (XXXV.xxxv.58) Polygnotos was active before 420 bc, while the style of his works and his association with Kimon place him firmly within the Early Classical period (...

Article

C. Hobey-Hamsher

(fl Rhodes, late 4th century bc).

Greek painter and bronze sculptor. He came from Kaunos in Caria, a city dominated by Rhodes in his day, or perhaps from Xanthos in Lycia. He had no known master, and none of his works survives. He painted ships, perhaps their ensigns, before he became a panel painter at the age of 50. Apelles appreciated his talent and promoted his pictures. He held Protogenes to be his equal in all aspects of art except one: he did not know when to stop working on a picture, and consequently his paintings lacked grace. His extreme diligence is the point of many anecdotes about him. His most famous painting was a depiction of Ialysos, the eponymous founder of that city on Rhodes. Ialysos was accompanied by a dog and so was perhaps represented as a hunter. The story is told that the foam on the dog’s mouth caused the artist so much trouble that, enraged, he threw his sponge at the picture. The sponge struck the dog’s mouth and achieved exactly the natural appearance the artist wanted. The ...