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Article

Lebanese, 19th century, male.

Painter. Religious subjects, portraits.

Little is known of this painter, other than that he was also a sculptor and physician reputed to have been taught painting by an Italian Orientalist painter who lived north of Beirut during the final two decades of the 19th century. Ibraim Al-Georr produced portraits of leading personalities of his day in a style that was meticulously detailed, but somehow hesitant to the point of being almost naive....

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time.

Astrology developed into a scientific branch of learning in ancient Greece, but because of the opposition of the Church Fathers it was transmitted to early medieval Europe in only fragmentary form in technically unsophisticated textbooks and popular divinatory genres. Literary and scientific texts provided more general ideas about the nature and attributes of the planets which were influential on later iconography. The first significant astrological images appear in 11th-century illustrated astronomical texts (e.g. London, BL, Cotton MS. Tiberius BV), which were acquired and produced by monasteries to aid with time-keeping and the construction of the Christian calendar....

Article

M. N. Sokolov

(Konstantinovich)

(b Feodosiya [now Kaffa], July 29, 1817; d Feodosiya, June 2, 1900).

Russian painter of Armenian descent. The son of an Armenian merchant, throughout his life he kept his links with the ancient traditions of Armenian Christian culture. He studied at the Academy of Arts, St Petersburg, in 1833–7 under Maksim Vorob’yov (1787–1855), a prominent Russian landscape painter of the Romantic period. From 1845 Ayvazovsky worked predominantly in Feodosiya, an ancient city in the Eastern Crimea. He travelled widely in Russia and Europe, the Near East, Africa and America. Ayvazovsky’s first significant paintings testify to his attentive assimilation of the canons of Romantic seascape painting, going back to Claude Lorrain, as well as the influence of Vorob’yov and the late works of Sil’vestr Shchedrin. In Ayvazovsky’s early works the accurate rendering of views is combined with a classicist rationality of composition, as in View of the Seashore in the Environs of St Petersburg (1835; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.)

A purely Romantic view of the world and exaltation in the face of the boundless, eternally changing sea find mature expression in the works of the 1840s, when Ayvazovsky gained renown throughout Europe. A number of foreign academies made him an honorary member, and J. M. W. Turner wrote an enthusiastic ode in honour of one of his pictures. The best-known work of this period is the ...

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Active in London.

Born 10 March 1903, in Braintree (Essex); died 21 November 1989, in Saffron Walden (Essex).

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, illustrator, printmaker, graphic designer. Military subjects, rustic scenes, landscapes, seascapes, harbour scenes, architectural views, church interiors. Decorative panels.

Edward Bawden studied at Cambridge School of Art ...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 7 October 1797, in Paris; died 14 September 1871, in Paris.

Painter, draughtsman. Religious subjects, landscapes, landscapes with figures, architectural views. Stage sets, church decoration.

Barbizon School.

A pupil of Bidauld, Ingres and Girodet-Trioson at the École des Beaux-Arts, Paris, François Bertin exhibited at the salon quite regularly from 1827 to 1853. He was the son of the founder of the ...

Article

British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 13 May 1867, in Bruges, Belgium, to English parents; died 11 June 1956, in Ditchling.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, engraver, lithographer, illustrator. Religious subjects, figure compositions, figures, local scenes (carnival), rustic scenes, urban landscapes, architectural views, urban views, harbour scenes, seascapes...

Article

Lebanese, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1852, in Ghosta; died 1930.

Painter. Religious subjects, portraits.

In 1870, aged eighteen, he left for Rome, where he remained for five years and where he studied at the institute of fine arts of the court painter Roberto Bompiani. During his stay, he visited museums and collections, learning to appreciate Raphael, Michelangelo, Titian and so on. He exhibited in Paris, during the Exposition Universelle of ...

Article

Lebanese, 19th century, male.

Born in Dlebta (Kesruan); died 1873.

Painter. Religious subjects, portraits.

The nephew of Moussa Dib, he learned to paint with his uncle and above all with the Italian painter Constantin Giusti.

His work can still be seen in a number of religious buildings, including, among others, ...

Article

Lebanese, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born in Dlebta (Kesruan); died 1826.

Painter. Religious subjects, portraits.

The uncle of Kenaan Dib, in 1777, he became Superior of the monastery of Our Lady of the Fields (Dayr Saydat al Haqlé).

In a painting in the chapel of the Convent of the Saviour, he illustrated a miracle which took place in ...

Article

Turkish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1842, in Constantinople; died 24 February 1910, in Constantinople.

Painter. Religious subjects, genre scenes, portraits.

Osman Hamdi Bey was the son of the Grand Vizir Müsir Ethern Pacha. He was sent to Paris to study from 1857 to 1869...

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Born 17 November 1919, in London; died 1 November 2003, in London.

Painter, printmaker. Landscapes, seascapes, portraits, still-lifes.

Colin Hayes read Modern History at Christ Church, Oxford, and studied art at the Ruskin School of Drawing in Oxford from 1946 to 1947...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

[Muḥammad Ḥasan Khān]

(fl c. 1800–40).

Persian painter. He signed a number of large oil paintings (Tehran, Nigaristan Mus.; ex-Amery priv. col.), including two life-size portraits of princes and a painting of Shaykh San‛an and the Christian Maiden. Other paintings that can be attributed to the artist on stylistic grounds include a third portrait of a prince in the same collection and two paintings of women (Tbilisi, Mus. A. Georg.). His style is characterized by a soft rendering of features, fondness for reddish brown and a hallmark vase of flowers. He also produced miniature paintings in the form of monochrome portraits. European travellers in Tehran in the 19th century erroneously attributed to him the large mural in the Nigaristan Palace depicting the court of the Qajar monarch Fath ‛Ali Shah (reg 1797–1834), but this painting is now considered the work of ‛Abdallah Khan.

S. Y. Amiranashvili: Iranskaya stankovaya zhivopis’ [Iranian wall painting] (Tbilisi, 1940)...

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Born 1877, in Manchester; died 1930, in Bromborough.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist, draughtsman, illustrator. Local scenes, landscapes, architectural views, church interiors.

Orientalism.

Augustus Osborne Lamplough trained at Chester School of Art and taught in Leeds from 1898 to 1899. He travelled and painted extensively in Algeria, Morocco and Egypt. He exhibited in London and throughout Britain, as well as in the USA (notably New York, Philadelphia and Buffalo). Lamplough's early works are cathedral interiors and architectural views of Venice. Following his journey to the Middle East, he painted desert views, the Nile (particularly reflections in the water at sunrise or dusk) and market scenes. His watercolours are characterised by his use of ochre, buff and beige tonalities, evocative of the desert sands and skies. Several of his watercolours have been published as book illustrations: ...

Article

Luigi  

Lebanese, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 18 May 1949, in Biblos or Beirut.

Painter, illustrator, scenographer. Religious subjects. Stage sets, murals.

He obtained his degree at the Beirut school of fine arts, where he taught from 1980 to 1983 in the architecture, decorative arts and graphics departments....

Article

Michael Curschmann

The medieval term mappa mundi (also forma mundi, historia/istoire) covers a broad array of maps of the world of which roughly 1100 survive. These have resisted systematic classification, but the clearly dominant type is one that aims at comprehensively symbolistic representation. Its early, schematic form is a disc composed of three continents surrounded and separated from one another by water (“T-O Map”) and associated with the three sons of Noah: Asia (Shem) occupies all of the upper half, Europe (Japhet) to the left and Africa (Ham) to the right share the lower half. Quadripartite cartographic schemes included the antipodes as a fourth continent, but the tripartite model was adopted by the large majority of the more developed world maps in use from the 11th century on and—with important variations—well into the Renaissance. While details were added as available space permitted, the Mediterranean continued to serve as the vertical axis and, with diminishing clarity, the rivers Don and Nile as the horizontal one. The map also continues to be ‘oriented’ towards Asia, where paradise sits at the very top. A circular ocean forms the perimeter and not infrequently the city of Jerusalem constitutes its centre....

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Born 19 December 1905, in London; died 20 October 1994.

Painter, draughtsman, stage set designer. Figure compositions, interiors with figures, landscapes, stiff-lifes, religious subjects.

London Group.

Robert Medley grew up in Hampstead, London, where his neighbours included Stanley Spencer, Richard Carline and Mark Gertler. He studied at the Byam Shaw School of Art ...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 4 January 1810, in Nancy; died 26 March 1881, in Algiers.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist, pastellist, lithographer, draughtsman. Genre scenes, landscapes, landscapes with figures, seascapes, church interiors.

Jules Achille Noël studied under Cherioux in Brest (Brittany) before moving to Paris. He debuted at the Salon in 1840 and continued exhibiting there until 1879, winning a third-class medal in 1853....

Article

Israeli, 20th century, male.

Born 1895; died 1980, in Safed.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist. Scenes with figures, religious subjects.

Shalom-of-Safed was a watchmaker of Polish-Russian exraction who began painting at the age of 60 in order to illustrate the Bible to his grandchildren. His naive creations included graphic elements inspired by tribal art....

Article

American, 19th–20th century, male.

Active from 1891 in France.

Born 21 June 1859, in Pittsburgh; died 25 May 1937, in Paris.

Painter, illustrator, pastellist, watercolourist, engraver, photographer. Religious subjects, genre scenes, harbour views, landscapes, urban landscapes, seascapes, animals.

Symbolism.

Tanner’s father was the minister of the African Methodist Episcopal Church in Pittsburgh, then in Philadelphia from 1866, and became Superintendent of his Church in 1888. His mother, Sarah Miller, had escaped slavery during her childhood, getting to Pittsburgh through the network called the Underground Railway. She set up a school in her own house for the children of the community. Tanner studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts from 1880 to 1882 under Thomas Eakins (Eakins did a portrait of Tanner in 1900). He became an illustrator, notably for ...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 June 1861, in Lyons; died 27 April 1943, in Treignac.

Painter, illustrator, lithographer, watercolourist. Religious subjects, allegorical subjects, figures, portraits, genre scenes, landscapes, waterscapes, seascapes. Murals, designs for tapestries.

Edmond Tapissier studied under Jean-Baptiste Chatigny in Lyons, and under Alexandre Cabanel and Fernand Cormon at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He spent time in St Petersburg and then visited Italy, Greece and the Middle East. Tapissier was appointed as a naval painter in ...