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Article

Chinese, 17th century, male.

Painter. Figures.

Chen Xian worked for the Huangbo sect around 1635-1675. He painted many Buddhist figures.

Article

Chinese, 17th century, male.

Born in Jiaxing (Zhejiang).

Painter. Figures, landscapes.

Ding Yuangong was active at the beginning of the Qing dynasty (1644-1911). He later became a Buddhist monk.

London (British Mus.): Hermit in Red Robe on Mountain Ledge (album leaf, signed...

Article

Chinese, 16th – 17th century, male.

Born 1547, in Xiuning (Anhui); died after 1628.

Painter. Figures, landscapes.

Ding Yunpeng painted mainly Buddhist and Taoist figures in the style of the Tang painters Wu Daozi (active c.720-760) and Li Longmian, notably in his way of outlining with the brush. He was connected with the painter Dong Qichang (...

Article

Stephen Addiss

[Dōjin]

(b Hijishio, Kanagawa Prefect., 1568; d Lake Hamana, Shizuoka Prefect., 1654).

Japanese Zen monk, painter and calligrapher. He entered the Shingon-sect temple Kansōji at the age of four or five, transferring to the Sōtō-sect Zen temple Chōgenji a few years later. Around the age of 16 he moved to the leading Sōtō temple in eastern Japan, Sōrinji. After completing his Zen training, perhaps in 1596, Fūgai spent two decades on pilgrimage. In 1616 he became abbot of Jōganji in Sagami Province (now part of Kanagawa Prefect.), but after only a few years he gave up his position to live in mountainside caves, which earned him the nickname Ana Fūgai (‘Cave Fūgai’). This practice may have been in emulation of Bodhidharma (Jap. Daruma, the first Zen patriarch), who was reputed to have meditated in front of a wall for nine years; but such rejection of temple life was rare for a 17th-century Japanese monk. While living in the Kamisoga Mountains, Fūgai is said to have made ink paintings of Daruma, which he would hang at the entrance to his cave, so that farmers could leave rice for the monk and take the paintings home. Many such works remain, darkened by incense, in farmhouses of the region. After some years Fūgai moved to a small hut in the village of Manazuru, south of Odawara, where he continued his ink painting and calligraphy. Besides Daruma, he also depicted the wandering monk Hotei (Chin. Budai; one of the Seven Gods of Good Fortune) and occasionally brushed self-portraits and landscapes in ink on paper....

Article

Hongren  

Vyvyan Brunst and James Cahill

[Hung-jen; Jiang Tao; zi Wuzhi, Jianjiang]

(b ?"She xian, Anhui Province, 1610; d She xian, 1664).

Chinese painter and Chan Buddhist monk. He is best known by his Buddhist name, Hongren; his secular name was Jiang Tao. Considered one of the Four Great Painter-Monks of the late Ming (1368–1644) period, he in fact reached the height of his artistic activity between 1651 and 1663, in the early Qing (1644–1911). Hongren is primarily known as the leading master of the Anhui school, as the creator of the distinctive angular landscapes of his mature period and as a man of great personal integrity and filial piety.

Hongren’s birthplace is variously recorded as Xiuning and She xian; he probably grew up at She xian. The Jiang family was well established in the region, but the early death of Hongren’s father brought hardship. Hongren supported his mother in the following years by drawing water and selling firewood; later, he may have earned an income by transcribing old texts and writing. The death of his mother so distressed him that he went into deep mourning, giving up all thought of marriage; he attempted to pay off the funeral debts as quickly as possible so as not to be ‘obliged to others for one’s own sake’....

Article

Hualin  

Chinese, 17th century, male.

Born 1597, in Sanshan (Fujian); died 1667.

Painter.

A Buddhist monk, Hualin left for Japan in 1660, where he became a priest. Many of his landscapes and flower and bamboo paintings are thus to be found in Japan.

Article

Kokan  

Japanese, 17th – 18th century, male.

Born 1653; died 1717.

Painter.

Kokan, who became the superior at the Hoon-ji temple in Kyoto, studied painting with Eino (1631-1697). He specialised in Buddhist themes as well as humorous subjects verging on caricature.

Article

Kuncan  

Joseph Tsenti Chang and Chu-Tsing Li

[xing Liu; zi Jieqiu; hao Shixi, Baitu, Can Daoren]

(b Changde, Hunan Province, 1612; d Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, 1673).

Chinese painter and Buddhist monk. He is known as one of the ‘Four Great Monk Painters’ of the early Qing dynasty (1644–1911), along with Shitao or Daoji, Zhu Da and Hongren, and as one of the greatest ‘Individualist’ painters of the 17th century (a group of artists that is always counterposed with the so-called ‘Orthodox’ painters of the 17th century).

As a youth he studied the classics and prepared himself for the civil service examinations, at the same time becoming interested in painting and Buddhism. Inspired by a Confucian scholar in his home town who was also a Chan (Jap. Zen) Buddhist, Kuncan decided to dedicate his life to Chan Buddhism; in 1638, to show his determination, he shaved off his hair. Encouraged by his mentor, he travelled to the Jiangnan region, the area south of the Yangzi River, to seek further instruction in Buddhism. While in Nanjing, Kuncan was introduced to the teachings of the famous patriarch Zhuhong (...

Article

LI Lin  

Chinese, 17th century, male.

Activec.1635.

Born in Siming (Zhejiang).

Painter.

Li Lin was a pupil of Ding Yunpeng (f. 1584-1638). He painted Buddhist figures in black and white, and liked to sign his work Longmian Housheng (Longmian returned to life).

Cologne (Mus. für ostasiatische Kunst): ...

Article

Cecil H. Uyehara

[Takimotobō Shōjō]

(b 1584; d 1639).

Japanese Shinto–Shingon Buddhist priest, painter and calligrapher. Together with Konoe Nobutada and Hon’ami Kōetsu (see Hon’ami family §(1)), he is known as one of the three Kan’ei no Sanpitsu (‘Three Brushes of the Kan’ei era’ (1624–44)). He began his religious training at the age of 17 at Mt Otoko, near Kyoto, at the Shinto–Shingon Buddhist sanctuary of Iwashimizu Hachimangu, of which he became abbot in 1628. In 1634 he relinquished his position and in 1637 retired to his residence, the Shōkadō (Pine Flower Hall), at one of the sanctuary’s subtemples, the Takimotobō. He was highly respected by the Regent Konoe Nobuhiro, and by the leading intellectuals, priests and Confucianists of the day, such as Kobori Enshū, Takuan Sōhō, Ishikawa Jōzan and Hayashi Razan (1583–1657). Shōjō studied the Shōren’in calligraphy style (see Japan §VII 2., (iii), (a)), as well as the elegant works by Heian-period (...

Article

Elizabeth Horton Sharf

[Muan Xingtao; Wu]

(b Quanzhou Prefecture, Fujian Province, 1611; d Nagasaki, 1684).

Chinese monk, calligrapher, painter and poet. He was the second abbot of Manpukuji and a prominent early patriarch of Ōbaku Zen Buddhism in Japan. Together with Ingen Ryūki (Yinyuan Longqi) and Sokuhi Nyoitsu (Jifei Ruyi), he became known as one of the Three Brushes of Ōbaku (Ōbaku no Sanpitsu), noted master Zen calligraphers (see also Japan, §VII, 2, (iv), (c)). Mokuan was ordained at the age of 18 (19 by Chinese reckoning) and studied under the eminent Chinese monks Miyun Yuanwu (1566–1642) and Feiyin Tongrong (1593–1661) before training at Wanfu si on Mt Huangbo (Fujian Province) under Ingen. Mokuan received dharma transmission from Ingen in 1650 and went on to serve as abbot of the monasteries Taiping si on Mt Lianshi and Huiming si on Mt Xiang in south-eastern China. In 1655, at Ingen’s behest, Mokuan emigrated to Nagasaki, where he took over as abbot of the monastery Fukusaiji and served as Ingen’s senior disciple in Japan. Sokuhi Nyoitsu and Mokuan gained renown as the ‘Two Gates to the Nectar [of liberation]’ (Jap. ...

Article

Patricia J. Graham

[Yiran Xingrong; Li; Rōun’an]

(b Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China, 1601; d Nagasaki, 1668).

Naturalized Japanese painter and Buddhist monk. Itsunen first came to Nagasaki from China, as a trader in Chinese medicines, in 1642. In 1644 he entered Kōfukuji, becoming its third abbot in 1645. Itsunen sought to increase the presence of the Chinese Chan (Jap. Zen) community in Japan, and, after repeated invitations, he persuaded the 33rd abbot of Wanfusi at Huangbo (Fujian Prov.), Ingen Ryūki, to emigrate to Japan in 1654. Ingen eventually founded Manpukuji in Uji in 1663, which became the headquarters for the new Japanese sect of Ōbaku Zen. Itsunen was a gifted painter of Buddhist figural subjects working in styles related to those popular among late Ming period (1368–1644) Buddhist monks in Fujian Province. He is known to have copied works by Chen Xian (fl 1634–54) brought to Japan by Ingen. These include a painting of Kannon (Kyoto, N. Mus.). He also saw earlier Chinese and Japanese Buddhist paintings in Japanese temple collections. His artistic style may have been further influenced by his acquaintance with members of the ...

Article

Burglind Jungmann

[cha Chayu; ho Solt’an; cha Chayu; ho Solt’an]

(b 1621; d after1671).

Korean painter of the Chosŏn period (1392–1910). He is best known for his Sŏn (Chin. Chan.; Jap. Zen) Buddhist figure painting and was by profession a court painter (hwawŏn), as were his father Han Sŏn-guk (b 1602) and his son-in-law Yi Myŏng-uk. Han Si-gak is also said to have been a teacher at the Bureau of Painting (Tohwasŏ). In 1655 he travelled with an embassy to Japan as an official painter. The Japanese mid-19th-century Koga bikō (‘Handbook of classical painting’), in which he is referred to erroneously as Kim Solt’an, records that during his stay he painted two bamboo pictures; according to the third envoy of the same embassy (see Hong Sŏn-p’yo) he made sketches of Japanese landscapes (untraced). In Korea he is credited with a portrait of the Second Counsellor of State, Song Si-yŏl (1607–89). The last known point of reference for the painter’s life is his contribution to a painting (untraced) documenting the wedding ceremony in ...

Article

Stephen Addiss

[Takuan Shūhō]

(b Izushi Prov. [now Hyōgō Prefect.], 1573; d Edo [now Tokyo], 1645).

Japanese Zen monk, painter and calligrapher. One of the most influential monks of the early 17th century, he was a painter and calligrapher in the Zen tradition (see Japan §VI 4., (vii)). He was born to a farming family and entered the Buddhist order at the age of eight, later studying Zen with the master Shun’oku Sōen (1529–1611) at the Rinzai-sect Zen temple Daitokuji in Kyoto. Impressing his fellow monks with the depth of his spirit and rigour of his practice, Takuan was made abbot of the temple at the unprecedented age of 36. However, he left the temple shortly afterwards to begin a long spell of travelling, during which he raised funds for the renovation of Daitokuji and other Zen temples. In 1629, however, Takuan was banished to northern Japan by the Tokugawa shogunate because he protested at its interference in temple matters. When his banishment ended after about three years, he was invited by Tokugawa Iemitsu (...

Article

Sotei  

Japanese, 17th century, male.

Born 1590; died 1662.

Painter.

Sotei painted Buddhist subjects. His successors used the same artist name.

Article

Chinese, 17th century, male.

Active in Quanzhou (Fujian Province) c. 1625-1650.

Painter.

Wang Jianzhang painted landscapes in the style of Dong Yuan (active in the 10th century) and Buddhist figures in the style of Li Gongli (1040-1106). Most of his surviving works are in Japan....

Article

Chinese, 16th – 17th century, male.

Active in Nanjing 1565-1630.

Born in Xiexian (Anhui).

Painter.

Zheng Zhong painted landscapes and Buddhist figures.

London (British Mus.): Sakyamuni (signed and dated 1568)

Taipei (National Palace Mus.): several works

Article

Chinese, 16th – 17th century, male.

Born 1574, in Jingling (Hubei); died 1624.

Painter. Landscapes.

Zhong Xing, a Chan Buddhist, was a poet and head of the school of poetry in Jingling.

Article

Zhou XI  

Chinese, 17th century, female.

Active during the second half of the 17th century.

Painter. Religious subjects, portraits.

Zhou Xi was the daughter of Zhou Rongqi. She painted Buddhist figures.

Taipei (National Palace Mus.): Ten Portraits of Arhats (album)