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Elizabeth F. Bennett

revised by Lei Xue

[I Ping-shou; zi Zisi; hao Moqing]

(b Ninghua, Fujian Province, 1754; d Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, 1815).

Chinese calligrapher, minor painter, and seal-carver. He passed the civil service examination to become a jinshi in 1789. He then had a series of official posts, serving on the Board of Justice, as an examiner, and as a prefectural magistrate first at Huizhou in Guangdong Province and then at Yangzhou in Jiangsu Province. Yi is generally recognized as a pioneering figure in the stele studies (beixue) movement in calligraphy (see China, §IV 2., (vii)). He occasionally painted landscapes, few of which are extant. His writings on calligraphy can be found in his Collected Poems of the Lingering Spring Thatched Hall (Liuchun caotang shichao).

Yi shared contemporary antiquarian interest and owned a large collection of rubbings from ancient inscriptions. In calligraphy Yi is best known for his clerical script (lishu), a modern reinterpretation of the style of Han dynasty stone steles. He also developed distinctive style in running script (...


French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 3 March 1763, in Paris; died 19 April 1810, in Paris.

Sculptor, draughtsman, illustrator, painter. Religious subjects. Statues, busts, low reliefs.

Antoine Denis Chaudet studied under Jean-Baptiste Stouf and Étienne Gois. He was awarded the second Prix de Rome in ...


French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1749, in Versailles; died 1825, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, sculptor, draughtsman (wash), engraver, decorative artist. Mythological subjects, allegorical subjects, historical portraits, hunting scenes, interiors with figures, gardens. Stage costumes and sets, furniture, designs for fabrics, frontispieces.

Dugourc's father, who was in the service of the Duke of Orléans, had a considerable fortune. Dugourc was permitted to attend the lessons taken by the Duke of Chartres (the future Philippe-Égalité), and at the age 15 left for Rome, attached to the embassy of the Count of Cani. From his infancy, he had shown an aptitude for drawing, perspective and architecture. However, the death of his mother, followed shortly after by the loss of his father's fortune, changed his life. From being an amateur, Dugourc became a professional artist, and executed paintings, sculptures and engravings. In a work published in ...


Ju-Hsi Chou

[Kao Feng-han; hao Nanfu Shanren]

(b Jiaozhou (modern Jiao xian), Shandong Province, 1683; d ?Shandong Province, 1748–9).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, seal-carver, collector and poet. The son of a minor official in charge of local education, Gao developed an interest in poetry, painting and seal-carving in his early youth, when he also began to collect old seals and inkstones. The great poet Wang Shizhen took a liking to him and left instructions before his death that Gao be admitted into the ranks of his disciples. A relative of the poet, Wang Qilei, also provided Gao with some formal instruction in the art of painting, beyond what he could learn from his father, an amateur painter of orchids and bamboo. Gao’s official career did not begin until 1729, when he took up an appointment as assistant magistrate of She xian, Anhui Province. In 1734 a new assignment took him to Taizhou, east of Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province. In 1736, having become entangled in a legal dispute involving a chief commissioner of the salt gabelle, he was briefly imprisoned; this and his deteriorating health, which resulted in the paralysis of his right hand, inevitably led to his resignation from officialdom....


British, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 6 July 1755, in York; died 7 December 1826, in London.

Sculptor, watercolourist, draughtsman, illustrator. Monuments, statues, low reliefs.

John Flaxman II enjoyed a reputation as one of the finest English sculptors of his age. The second son of the plaster-cast maker John Flaxman, he spent much of his childhood in his father's studio, drawing and modelling in wax or clay. He received a thorough grounding in Greek and Latin, and exhibited his first artistic work (a copy after an Antique original) with the Free Society of Artists in ...


Spanish, 18th century, male.

Born 1747, in Seville; died 12 November 1787, in Cádiz.

Painter, sculptor, copyist. History painting.

José de Rubira was the son of Andrés de Rubira. Although only 11 years old when his father died, he is not known to have studied under any other teacher. He is known in particular as an excellent copyist of Murillo....


Austrian, 18th century, male.

Born 1761, in Vienna; died 27 March 1797, in Vienna.

Painter, sculptor, illustrator.

Christian Sambach was the son and pupil of Franz Gaspard Sambach.

Poznan (Muz. Mielzynskich): Portrait of Philippo Buonarotti (miniature)

Vienna (Albertina Mus.): Crucifixion (drawing)...


Spanish, 18th century, male.

Born 1717, in Perpignan, to Spanish parents; died 1773, in Barcelona.

Painter, copyist. Religious subjects.

Francisco Tramulles was the son of a Catalan sculptor who went to Perpignan to work at the cathedral. He was the younger brother of Manuel Tramulles. Francisco first studied in Paris before going to Barcelona to continue his training under Veladomat the Elder. He then went to Madrid where he joined the Academia de Bellas Artes and copied the old masters for two years. He was made a member of the Madrid academy in ...