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Article

Baroque  

Gauvin Bailey and Jillian Lanthier

Term used to describe one of the first genuinely global styles of art and architecture in the Western canon, extending from its birthplace in Bologna and Rome to places as far-flung as France, Sweden, Russia, Latin America, colonial Asia (Goa, Macao), and Africa (Mozambique, Angola), even manifesting itself in hybrid forms in non-European cultures such as Qing China (the Yuanming yuan pleasure gardens of the Qianlong Emperor) or Ottoman Turkey (in a style often called Türk Barok). The Baroque also embraced a very wide variety of art forms, from the more traditional art historical media of painting, sculpture, and architecture to public spectacles, fireworks, gardens, and objects of everyday use, often combining multiple media into a single object or space in a way that blurred traditional disciplinary boundaries. More so than the Renaissance and Mannerist stylistic movements which preceded it, Baroque was a style of the people as well as one of élites, and scholars are only recently beginning to explore the rich material culture of the Baroque, from chapbooks (Italy) and votive paintings (central Europe and Latin America) to farm furniture (Sweden) and portable oratories (Brazil). Although its precise chronological boundaries will probably always be a matter of dispute, the Baroque era roughly covers the period from the 1580s to the early 18th century when, in places such as France and Portugal, the ...

Article

Geneviève Bresc-Bautier

(b ?Avignon, 1660; d Lyon, Aug 4, 1726).

French sculptor and painter. According to Pernetti he trained in the workshop of Pierre Puget. By 1684 he was settled in Lyon, where in 1687 he contracted with the abbey of St Pierre to make statues of Minerva and Concord (stone; untraced). Shortly after, he submitted the relief Lot and his Daughters (clay; untraced) as his morceau d’agrément to the Académie Royale in Paris, but he never became a full academician. Between 1690 and 1696 he painted six scenes from the Life of St Anthony, full of vehement energy and a Baroque sense of movement, for the choir of the abbey of St Antoine (in situ). From 1703 to 1706 he executed stone sculpture for the façade of the Hôtel de Ville in Lyon. Inspired by the example of Puget’s sculpture for the Hôtel de Ville in Toulon, Chabry seems to have taken liberties with the intentions of the architect Robert de Cotte, using caryatids instead of slave figures or scrolls. Much of this sculpture, including statues of ...

Article

Vernon Hyde Minor

(b Pescia, Aug 27, 1686; d Rome, 1754).

Italian sculptor, draughtsman and painter. He moved with his family to Florence in 1697, entering the workshop of Giovanni Battista Foggini, principal sculptor to Cosimo III de’ Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. Early in his career he received some important commissions: in 1709, when the English antiquarian John Talman arrived in Florence looking for artists to illustrate Italy’s most famous monuments of art, he chose Cornacchini to do a number of the drawings (for a discussion of Cornacchini as a draughtsman, see Cannon Brookes), and in 1710 Cornacchini signed and dated a marble standing statue of Clement XI (Urbino Cathedral). He was also patronized by the influential Francesco Maria Niccolò Gabburri, who commissioned from him, probably before 1712, stucco decorations (destr. early 19th century) for his own Palazzo Giuntini. Gabburri accompanied Cornacchini when he departed for Rome in 1712, establishing him in the household of his uncle, Cardinal Carlo Agostino Fabbroni, who until ...

Article

Torbjörn Fulton

[Fouquet]

French family of artists. Bernard Foucquet the elder had two sons who were active primarily in Sweden: the painter Jacques Foucquet (fl 1685–1704) and the sculptor Bernard Foucquet the younger (b 1640; d after 1711). While in France, Jacques was an officer and engineer in the employ of Louis XIV. He was influenced by Charles Le Brun’s style, which was taught at the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris. In 1694 he was brought to Sweden, together with other French artists, by Nicodemus Tessin the younger to execute monumental historical and allegorical works in the newly built Royal Palace in Stockholm. His principal works there are the three central ceiling panels (1700–02) of the vault in the Gallery of Charles XI in the State Apartment in the north wing. The paintings in this gallery and in the adjoining Cabinet of Peace and Cabinet of War depict incidents in the war between Denmark and Sweden during the reign of Charles XI and the peace that followed. The King is represented dressed as a Roman military commander surrounded by a host of Classical gods and allegorical figures, and the whole scheme is continued in sculpted stuccowork groupings by ...

Article

A. Gerhardt

(b ?1630–40; d after 1707).

German ivory- and wood-carver, wax modeller and miniaturist. He was the foremost master of small-scale sculpture active in northern Germany and Denmark in the Baroque period, basing his work on pictorial and sculptural models from the earlier 17th century. The strong influence on his sculpture of the work of Artus Quellinus (i) and other sculptors in the circle of Rubens, and of Georg Petel and his followers, suggests that Henne made a study journey through the Netherlands and southern Germany. From 1663 to 1665 he worked in Hamburg, where he made oval ivory portrait reliefs of the local patricians. These works, such as the Portrait of a Man (Hamburg, Mus. Kst & Gew.), represent the sitters half-length, turned at an angle to the viewer, and with the features, hair and draperies treated with meticulous realism. Henne also executed portrait medallions and small-scale single figures and groups with mythological or religious subjects. His ivory figure of the ...

Article

M. J. C. Otten

(bapt Amsterdam, Sept 10, 1645; bur Haarlem, June 15, 1708).

Dutch etcher, draughtsman, painter, sculptor, medallist and writer. He is best known for his political caricatures of Louis XIV of France and for his prints glorifying William III, Stadholder of the Netherlands and King of England. De Hooghe is an important representative of the late Dutch Baroque. His style is characterized by strong contrasts of lights and darks and an expressive composition. In his prints he combined contemporary personalities with allegorical figures. His prints are numerous, but few of his drawings survive and his paintings are rarer still. De Hooghe’s first commission for an etching probably came from Constantijn Huygens the elder, secretary to William III; this was Zeestraet (1667; Hollstein, no. 287). In 1668 de Hooghe was in Paris, where he produced some book illustrations, but he returned to Amsterdam, where from 1670 to 1691 he illustrated the annual newsheet Hollandsche Mercurius. He regularly produced such political prints as ...

Article

Ricardo Descalzi

(b Quito, ?end of the 17th century; d Quito, May 31, 1773).

Ecuadorean wood-carver and painter. He was a pupil of José Olmos, and he set up his workshop in Quito facing the Franciscan monastery for which he worked. A versatile artist, he was also active as a gold- and silversmith, printer, and gunsmith. In 1736 Legarda carved his masterful Virgin of the Apocalypse or Winged Virgin of Quito (Quito, S Francisco), which was inspired by a painting by Miguel de Santiago. Legarda’s fine work reflects the mystical fervour of the legend it depicts. The twisting figure of the Virgin, trampling the head of a dragon underfoot, is balanced by her outspread arms and wings. Her face reflects the beauty of the mestiza, the mixed-race woman of Quito. Elsewhere in Quito, Legarda carved the Baroque altarpieces for the church of La Merced, the hospital and the churches of the Carmen Moderno and Cantuña, as well as the Crucifixion in this last church. In ...

Article

José Fernandes Pereira

[Nasoni, Niccolò; Nazzoni, Niccolò]

(b San Giovanni, Valderno di Sopra, Tuscany, 1691; d (?Oporto), 1773).

Italian architect, painter and designer, active in Portugal. He was one of the most influential figures of the Portuguese Baroque. Immensely productive and imaginative, he was essentially a decorator who revealed in his buildings the decorative vocabulary of Tuscan Baroque. He was called ‘Dom Nicolau’ by the people of Oporto as a tribute to his inventiveness and originality and to his transformation of Oporto, which he found a medieval town and converted into one of the most Baroque of Portuguese cities. He endowed it with churches and houses based on the formula of a literal translation into granite of the complex ornament in his painting. Nasoni was theatrical in his designs for staircases and portals as well as in the realism of his decorative motifs, and he established in Oporto architecture and wood-carving a tradition of extremely dramatic effects combined with the richest ornamentation seen in Portugal since the Manueline style....

Article

(b Granada, April 1665; d Granada, Nov 6, 1732).

Spanish sculptor and painter. Son of the master carpenter Manuel Risueño, he was an apprentice in his father’s workshop with the sculptors Diego and José de Mora and the painter Juan de Sevilla (1643–95), all followers and pupils of Alonso Cano. His sculpture is in the tradition of such predecessors in Granada as Cano, Pedro de Mena, the Mora family and the García brothers. He is an interesting figure, working in a period of transition. His most important work was done after 1710. His documented work is scarce, but on the basis of style a substantial amount has been convincingly attributed to him, in particular the fine polychromed terracotta groups for which he is renowned. He also worked in wood and stone and was active as a painter.

Risueño’s clay models were studies from life that continued the figure types created by Cano, but with a new naturalism and an 18th-century elegance. It is thought that his small and medium-sized polychromed terracottas date from ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

(b Toro, ?1694; d Toledo, Dec 13, 1742).

Spanish architect, sculptor and painter. He came from a family of architects and sculptors, which included his father Antonio Tomé (1664–1730) and his two brothers, Andrés Tomé (1688–1761) and Diego Tomé (1696–1732). The family was active in Castile at the beginning of the 18th century; they are first recorded in 1715 as sculptors of the portal of the Universidad de Valladolid, in which a giant order, crowned with statues, dominates the plain façade. The Tomé family was called to Toledo in 1720 to work on the Transparente of the 13th-century cathedral; Narciso appears to have designed the work before his departure on 6 June 1721, when the contract for its execution was issued. He returned to Toledo on 27 October 1721 and was appointed Maestro Mayor of the cathedral. Work was completed by 9 June 1732, when the altar was consecrated.

The Transparente is a ...

Article

(b Deggendorf, May 8, 1710; d Hildesheim, April 11, 1781).

German painter and sculptor. Formerly thought to be the brother of Johann Christian Thomas Winck, he in fact acquired his surname from a stepfather. Nor was he the grandfather of the sculptor Friedrich Carl Franz Winck (1796–1859). He probably started his training in Augsburg—his antecedents lie in south German late Baroque—and may have served his apprenticeship and journeyman years in Holland. He was in Mannheim in 1743 and then worked in Hildesheim, providing an allegorical ceiling painting (1743–4, 1752–3; destr.) for the renovated Rittersaal in the cathedral, and in Brunswick, where he executed a stucco relief for the main gable of the opera house (1747–8; destr. 1864).

Winck married in 1753 in Hildesheim and executed commissions for its prince-bishop during the following years. The Legend of St Clement (c. 1755–8) on the ceiling of the chapel of Schloss Liebenburg (Goslar) is one of his most mature works. Although it is painted on a flat ceiling, perspective is used to give the illusion of a vault, with standing figures from scenes relating to the saint’s life encircling his apotheosis in the centre of the picture and forming the edge of the apparent vault. The apse is painted with illusionistic architectural features, and the altarpiece shows the ...