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Article

German, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1950.

Painter, lithographer, performance artist, photographer. Artists' books.

Fluxus.

Wolf Adam Bottinelli trained at the art academy in Kassel. He appears to have a very free idea of the act of creation, which has brought him close to the ...

Article

Austrian, 20th century, male.

Born 1938, in Ardring.

Action artist, happenings artist, performance artist, draughtsman.

Fluxus, Body Art.

Aktionismus group.

Günter Brus studied from 1953 in Graz and Vienna and went on in the 1960s to become one of the principal figures in the Viennese Aktionismus (Actionist) School which proclaimed the concept of artistic freedom and mourned its incompatibility with the sclerotic bourgeois society of the post-Nazi years. He took part in various 'happenings' in ...

Article

Marco Livingstone

(b Nashville, TN, June 1, 1937).

American painter, sculptor, installation artist, draughtsman, performance artist and film maker. He studied at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago (1955), at the New School for Social Research in New York (1956) and under Hans Hofmann in Provincetown, MA (1957). Together with Allan Kaprow, Claes Oldenburg, Jim Dine, Robert Whitman (b 1935) and others, he was briefly an instrumental figure in the history of performance art in New York during the late 1950s with the Happenings he presented as early as 1957, most famously The Burning Building (1959), which took place in his loft at 148 Delancey Street (designated the Delancey Street Museum). With their narrative flow and elements of comedy, Grooms’s highly engaging performances were closer to the ‘painter’s theatre’ of Dine than to the events created by Kaprow or the Fluxus artists. The energy that went into these performances was soon redeployed into films, beginning with ...

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Born 1931.

Performance artist, sculptor of assemblages, painter (mixed media).

Neo-Dadaism, Fluxus.

Geoffrey Hendricks joined Fluxus in 1966. In 1971, together with Bici Forbes Hendricks and George Maciunas, he created Flux Divorce, the movement's principal manifestation. He was also involved in several avant-garde festivals and, in ...

Article

Danish, 20th century, male.

Active also active in Germany.

Born 1 September 1938, in Copenhagen.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman, watercolourist, engraver, performance artist, environmental artist. Landscapes.

Neo-Impressionism.

Fluxus, Nouveaux Fauves.

Per Kirkeby took a doctorate in geology and has participated in several scientific expeditions to Greenland, central America, central Asia and Ireland. In the 1960s, he was a member of the experimental art school in Copenhagen, which was close to the Fluxus group, and, in ...

Article

Czechoslovak, 20th century, male.

Born 1940, in Plzen.

Painter, draughtsman, performance artist, video artist. Multimedia.

Neo-Dadaism, Fluxus.

Between 1948 and 1956, Milan Knizak studied at the Mariánské Lázne school of music, at the academy of fine arts, and at the faculty of mathematics and physics in Prague. He taught at several American universities and art colleges in Germany and Austria. He was appointed rector of the academy of fine arts in Prague in ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 12 December 1922, in Chicago; died 8 December, 2004.

Painter, performance artist, poet, writer.

Fluxus.

Jackson Mac Low has taught in numerous schools, mainly in association with New York University. He is the author of about 30 works. He lived and worked in New York. In the USA in the 1960s Mac Low was one of the Fluxus artists grouped around George Maciunas. He often carried out his performances with his wife, Anne Tardos....

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Active from 1939 in England.

Born 1926, in Nuremberg.

Painter, sculptor, performance artist.

Fluxus, Kinetic Art.

Gustav Metzger fled Nazi Germany in 1939 and eventually settled in London, where he studied art (1942-1944). He transferred to the Koninklijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Antwerp in ...

Article

Austrian, 20th century, male.

Born 16 June 1925, in Grodnau; died 26 May 2013, in Portugal.

Painter, draughtsman, action artist, performance artist.

Fluxus, Body Art.

Aktionismus group.

Otto Muehl studied painting at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna between 1952 and 1957 and went on to give drawing lessons in a therapy centre. In ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1927, in Meudon.

Painter, performance artist.

Fluxus.

Serge Oldenburg III, son of a Russian emigrant, lived in Nice and Paris. He was involved in early 'happenings' from 1962, hitchhiking with a piano and re-routing a bus, and generally with the Nice group, especially Ben and the Fluxus movement. In his plastic pieces he worked in monochrome, as in the white or blue he spread over the pictures in his paintings ...

Article

Japanese, 20th century, female.

Active in the USA.

Born 1933, in Tokyo.

Painter, sculptor, performance artist.

Neo-Dadaism, Fluxus.

After settling in New York, Yoko Ono initially took an active role in the Fluxus group, organising concerts (particularly of La Monte Young) and putting up artists from the group (George Brecht, Allan Kaprow, George Segal). After marrying the singer John Lennon of the Beatles, she broke off from her own activities as an artist and took part in demonstrations for peace and for the emancipation of women. Following the assassination of her husband, she returned to her work as an artist....

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 22 October 1925, in Port Arthur, Texas; died 12 May 2008, in Captiva Island, Florida.

Painter (mixed media), watercolourist, sculptor of assemblages, engraver, lithographer, screen printer, installation artist, performance artist. Stage sets.

Neo-Dadaism, Fluxus, Citationism, Copy Art.

Experiments in Art and Technology group...

Article

Japanese, 20th century, female.

Born 1929, in Sabae-Shi.

Draughtswoman, collage artist, photomontage artist, performance artist. Artists’ books.

Fluxus.

After studying in Japan, Takako Saito went to the USA in 1963 where she made the acquaintance of George Maciunas and completed her education at the Brooklyn Museum Art School. In ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Active from 1955 also active in France and in Spain.

Born 14 October 1932, in Leverkusen; died 3 April 1998, in Berlin.

Painter (mixed media), draughtsman, engraver, sculptor, sculptor of assemblages, performance artist, installation artist, video artist.

Neo-Dadaism, Fluxus, Affichisme.

Labor Group...

Article

Grischka Petri

(b Leverkusen, nr Cologne, Oct 14, 1932; d Berlin, April 3, 1998).

German painter, sculptor, décollagist, composer, video artist, and performance artist. He was one of the fathers of the European Happening movement. Vostell studied typography, lithography, and painting in Cologne, Wuppertal, Paris, and Düsseldorf (1950–58). In 1959 he married Mercedes Guardado Olivenza in Cáceres, Spain. Early in his career he discovered Décollage , a technique of cutting, tearing away or otherwise removing pieces of an image. His spelling of the term, dé-coll/age, underlined the term’s dialectical implications of destruction and creation. In the 1960s he worked with chemicals to transfer the process to photography, video, and film, turning it into an all-encompassing strategy of image deconstruction, often within the iconographic framework of violence and sexuality as communicated by mass media.

Vostell’s combined décollage with car parts and television sets, being one of the first artists using such a device as part of a sculpture in 1958. In 1962 he joined the ...