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Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 20 January 1951, in Paris.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman, illustrator.

Agid began his studies in 1970-1971 by taking one course of teaching and research on the environment. He studied architecture between 1971 and 1976, before registering in fine arts at the Université de Paris VIII....

Article

Dutch, 20th century, male.

Active in France since 1963.

Born 1942, in Harlingen (Friesland).

Sculptor, environmental artist, draughtsman.

Tjeerd Alkema has been based in Montpellier since the 1960s. In 1970, he was one of the founder members of ABC Productions along with Jean Azémard, Alain Clément and Vincent Bioulès, the group which put on an exhibition called ...

Article

Sofia Hernández Chong Cuy

American installation artists, active also in Puerto Rico. Jennifer Allora (b Philadelphia, Mar 20, 1974) graduated with a bachelor’s degree in art from the University of Richmond, Virginia (1996), and Guillermo Calzadilla (b Havana, Cuba, Jan 10, 1971) graduated with a Bachelor of Fine Arts from the Escuela de Artes Plastica in San Juan, Puerto Rico (1996). Allora and Calzadilla met in Italy in 1995 during a study abroad program in Florence. They then lived together in San Juan for a year before moving to New York City where they started working collaboratively while each participated in different residency and study programs. In 1998–1999, Allora participated in the year-long Whitney Independent Study Program, while Calzadilla participated in the P.S.1 Contemporary Arts Center National Studio Program.

Allora & Calzadilla’s first important international exhibition was the XXIV Bienal de São Paulo in 1998 curated by Paulo Herkenhoff, which investigated the idea of cultural cannibalism known in Brazilian literature as ...

Article

Deborah Cullen

(Henry) [Spinky]

(b Charlotte, NC, Nov 29, 1907; d April 27, 1977).

African American painter, sculptor, graphic artist, muralist and educator. In 1913, Charles Alston’s family relocated from North Carolina to New York where he attended DeWitt Clinton High School. In 1929, he attended Columbia College and then Teachers College at Columbia University, where he obtained his MFA in 1931. Alston’s art career began while he was a student, creating illustrations for Opportunity magazine and album covers for jazz musician Duke Ellington.

Alston was a groundbreaking educator and mentor. He directed the Harlem Arts Workshop and then initiated the influential space known simply as “306,” which ran from 1934 to 1938. He taught at the Works Progress Administration’s Harlem Community Art Center and was supervisor of the Harlem Hospital Center murals, leading 35 artists as the first African American project supervisor of the Federal Art Project. His two murals reveal the influence of Mexican muralist Diego Rivera (1886–1957). His artwork ranged from the comic to the abstract, while often including references to African art. During World War II, he worked at the Office of War Information and Public Information, creating cartoons and posters to mobilize the black community in the war effort....

Article

British, 19th century, male.

Active in Londonc.1880.

Painter.

David Anderson focused his work on fishermen and their environment. He exhibited two paintings at the Suffolk Street Gallery in 1880 and 1881.

Article

Arradon  

French, 20th century, female.

Born 5 January 1931, in Nantes.

Environmental artist, sculptor, painter. Designs for tapestries.

Kinetic Art.

Adam Séma Group.

Arradon studied at the studio of André Lhote in Paris. From 1962 she took part in the traditional annual salons in Paris: the Salon des Indépendants, the Salon de la Jeune Peinture, at the time quite involved in representation and politics, and the Salon des Grands et Jeunes d'Aujourd'hui. In ...

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 20 November 1946, in Harrisburg (Pennsylvania).

Sculptor, draughtswoman, multimedia artist.

Land Art.

Alice Aycock studied at Rutgers University (Douglass College), New Brunswick, NJ, receiving a BA in 1968, when she moved to New York. She obtained an MA from Hunter College in ...

Article

Anne K. Swartz

(Francisca )

(b East Los Angeles, CA, Sept 20, 1946).

American muralist, activist and teacher. Born to Mexican–American parents, Baca is recognized as one of the leading muralists in the USA. She was involved from a young age in activism, including the Chicano Movement, the antiwar protest and Women’s Liberation. She studied art at California State University, Northridge, where she received Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees. Baca started teaching art in 1970 in East Los Angeles for the Los Angeles Department of Recreation and Parks and became interested in the ways murals could involve youth, allowing them to express their experiences. She founded the City of Los Angeles Mural Program in 1974, which evolved into the Social and Public Resource Center, a community arts organization, where she served as artistic director. She held five summer mural workshops from 1976 through 1983 for teenagers and community artists to help her paint a huge mural on the ethnic history of Los Angeles, called the ...

Article

Banksy  

British, 20th – 21st century, male.

Graffiti art, street art, political art.

Banksy is an anonymous English street artist who emerged in the art world in the early 1990s. Originally a freehand graffiti artist, he transitioned to using stencils by the early 2000s. Satirical and political in nature, his works typically depict rats, children, celebrity figures, policemen, and apes to who address issues of capitalism, urban decay, war, consumer culture, greed, and corruption. He usually works illegally, painting directly onto the facades of buildings and other structures....

Article

Banksy  

Elizabeth K. Mix

(b Bristol, ?1974).

English graffiti and interventionist artist. Banksy is best known for stencilled graffiti that sometimes mimics government posts. His graffiti, both freehand and stencil, started appearing on trains and walls around Bristol in 1992–4. He apparently left Bristol for London late in 1999. The name ‘Banksy’ became formally associated with his work with the publication of his first book, Banging Your Head Against a Brick Wall (2001).

Banksy’s text-based graffiti has included the phrase, ‘caution, concealed trap doors in operation’, on London’s Millennium Bridge; ‘designated riot area’ in Trafalgar Square, and ‘this is not a not a photo opportunity’ at various tourist sites including Big Ben, the Eiffel Tower, and the Sydney Opera House. Many were fooled by his official-looking stencilled declaration that walls on Marylebone and Bayswater Roads in Westminster were ‘a designated graffiti area’. Other works contained unusual appropriations of public property—vandalized street signs, traffic cones, telephone booths, vehicles, and even farm animals. Banksy has termed his appropriation and manipulation of public advertisements ‘Brandalism’. A subtle use of found objects involves the painting of frames or dotted lines and scissors around the edges of objects, making the outlined objects appear to be either artworks or coupons ready to be clipped. In addition, Banksy has mimicked British pound notes (‘Banksy notes’ featuring Princess Diana) and oil paintings by William Bouguereau and Claude Monet, among other artists, by inserting incongruous objects (bombs, iPods, shopping trolleys) into copies of well-known paintings in a series of ‘Vandalized Oil Paintings’....

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 1958, in Dijon.

Painter, environmental artist.

Having given up a career as a primary school teacher, Cécile Bart graduated with a diploma from the École des Beaux-Arts in Dijon. She lives and works in Marsannay-la-Côte in Burgundy. In 2003...

Article

South African, 20th–21st century, male.

Born 1956, in Kitwe, Zambia.

Painter, sculptor, printmaker, video artist, land artist, watercolourist, curator.

Clive van den Berg came to South Africa in 1966, and trained at the University of Natal. He taught fine arts at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg ...

Article

German, 20th century, female.

Born 2 July 1936, in Giessen.

Painter, sculptor, environmental artist.

Lore Bert was a student at the school of fine arts in Berlin, then at the school of arts and trades in Darmstadt. She lives and works in Mainz. She uses Korean and Japanese paper which, through various procedures of manipulation including creasing, cutting out, sewing and collage, she turns into paintings, sculptures or surrounds. The surfaces are often covered with signs, figures, geometrical letters or shapes....

Article

Swedish, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1957, in Stockholm.

Painter (mixed media).

Ernst Billgren studied at the Valand art academy (1982-1987). HIs paintings are presented with a flourish not dissimilar to Pop Art practices, the complexity of which adds a theatrical, distancing dimension. He has had many solo exhibitions in Sweden, and has participated in collective exhibitions in Sweden, Norway, Germany, Brasil and Mexico....

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1945, in Paris.

Painter, installation artist, intervention artist, performance artist, photographer. Multimedia.

Conceptual Art, Land Art, Body Art.

The beginnings of Borgeaud's work, as it was to develop subsequently, can be dated from 1969, the year of the exhibition event ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1942, in Boston (Massachusetts).

Painter, draughtsman, environmental artist. Multimedia.

Bad Painting, New Image (related to).

Jonathan Borofsky studied at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, and at Yale School of Art. He taught at the New York School of Visual Arts from 1969 to 1977 and went on to teach at the Valencia Institute of Art, California. At the start of his artistic career, in the late 1960s, Borofsky would count obsessively, writing numbers from one upwards in his notebook and drawing in between the numbers when ideas struck him. He then produced paintings based on these drawings, which he signed with the number he had reached when the painting was finished. In the early 1970s, his work drew on his own dreams for inspiration: he would keep records of his dreams and spontaneous drawings and produce paintings based on that. Much of his work is related to these themes of time and his own experience: in ...

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Active since 1973 active in England, after Germany.

Born 28 January 1924, in Brussels; died 28 January 1976, in Cologne.

Painter (including gouache/mixed media), engraver, installation artist, environmental artist.

Conceptual Art.

Marcel Broodthaers bowed to his father's wishes and enrolled at university in 1942 to study chemistry, but quickly dropped out to become a poet. By the late 1940s, he was running a small bookshop and moving in literary circles, frequenting the Surrealists and becoming a willing co-signatory to the various tracts levelled at the time against André Breton. He was a close friend of René Magritte. In 1957, Broodthaers published his first volume of poems: ...

Article

Cecilia Suárez

(b Quito, Sept 8, 1939).

Ecuadorean painter, graphic designer, sculptor, installation artist, architect and teacher. He studied architecture at the Universidad Nacional de Bogotá, Colombia. He worked for the Graham Foundation and the National Endowment for the Arts, Washington, DC, and received a grant to attend the Center for Advanced Visual Studies at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, where he worked with György Kepes. Later he became a professor at the arts faculty of the Universidad Central, Quito. Bueno worked first in graphic design before going on to experiment with the incorporation of technology into art, using laser beams, mechanical pumps, plastic, glass and such elements as water, fire and air, for example in 49 Tubes, exhibited at the Bienal de Arte Coltejer in Medellín in 1972. He also combined visual art with music in such works as Flame Orchards, with music by Paul Earls, which won joint first prize with Kepes in the same exhibition. Exploration into ecological and environmental art led him to experiment with the idea of an aerial view of the urban landscape incorporating military camouflage sheets....

Article

Croat, 20th century, female.

Active also active in France.

Born 14 March 1930, in Split.

Painter, sculptor, draughtswoman, environmental artist. Designs for tapestries.

Jagoda Buic studied art history in Zagreb, then in Rome and Vienna. After making over 100 costumes and stage sets for theatre, cinema and ballet in the 1950s, she moved on to tapestry in ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 25 March 1938, in Boulogne-sur-Seine.

Painter, installation artist, environmental artist.

Conceptual Art.

BMPT Group.

Daniel Buren was a pupil in Paris at the École des Art Appliqués, then the École des Beaux-Arts, where he was a fellow student of Parmentier, Viallat and Kermarrec. In the 1960s he travelled very widely. Daniel Buren seldom takes part in group exhibitions, though there have been a few exceptions, such as the Paris Biennale des Jeunes of ...