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Danielle B. Joyner

From the time John Cassian established the first female foundation in Marseille in ad 410, monastic women lived in varying states of enclosure and were surrounded by diverse images and objects that contributed to their devotion, education and livelihood. The first rule for women, written in 512 by St Caesarius of Arles, emphasized their strict separation from men and the world, as did the Periculoso, a directive issued by Pope Boniface VIII (reg 1294–1303) in 1298. Various architectural solutions developed throughout the Middle Ages to reconcile the necessities of enclosure with the access required by male clerics to celebrate Mass and provide pastoral care. Nuns’ choirs, where the women would gather for their daily prayers, were often constructed as discreet spaces in the church, which allowed women to hear or see the Mass without interacting with the cleric, as in the 10th-century choir in the eastern transept gallery at St Cyriakus in Gernrode, Germany. In some Cistercian examples, the nuns’ choir appeared at the west end of the nave. Dominican and Franciscan architecture was largely varied. Double monasteries, which housed men and women, also required careful construction. A 7th-century text describing the church of St Brigida in ...

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Italian, 14th – 15th century, male.

Born 1378–1380, in Florence; died 1 December 1455, in Florence.

Painter, sculptor.

Florentine School.

Lorenzo Ghiberti’s early training was as a goldsmith and a painter in the workshop of Bartolo di Michele (Bartoluccio), who was – according to differing accounts – either the boy’s father or stepfather. In ...

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Italian, 14th – 15th century, male.

Active in the latter half of the 14th and the first half of the 15th century.

Born in Quercia Grossa, near Siena.

Painter, goldsmith, sculptor.

Pietro d'Angelo di Guarnieri da Siena was the father of Jacopo della Quercia and Priamo di Pietro. He is believed to have worked in Lucca between ...

Article

French, 14th – 15th century, male.

Active 1375-1416.

Painter, miniaturist, sculptor, medallist.

Michelet Saumon worked in Paris and was court painter to the Duke de Berry from 1401 to 1416.

Article

Frank Dabell and Stephen K. Scher

[Spinello]

Italian family of artists. They were active in Tuscany in the 14th and 15th centuries. Like his brother and father, Luca di Spinello worked as a goldsmith and two of his sons were artists: the painter (1) Spinello Aretino and the goldsmith and sculptor Niccolò Spinelli. Spinello was one of the most popular, prolific and important Tuscan painters of the late 14th century and early 15th. Niccolò, who settled in Florence, was the oldest contestant in the 1401–2 competition to make the bronze doors of the Baptistery in Florence. He married the daughter of the painter Andrea di Nerio, who probably trained Spinello. Spinello’s son, (2) Parri Spinelli, was also a painter. Niccolò’s two sons, Cola Spinelli (1384–1458) and Forzore Spinelli (1397–1477), were goldsmiths in Florence. Forzore’s son, (3) Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli, was a medallist who produced numerous large portrait medals.

(b Arezzo, 1350–52...

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