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German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 April 1868, in Hamburg; died 27 February 1940, in Berlin.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, architect, designer, decorative artist, graphic designer. Posters, furniture, wallpaper, carpets, glassware, ceramics, table services, jewellery, silverwork, objets d'art, typefaces.

Jugendstil, functional school.

Die Sieben (Group of Seven), Deutscher Werkbund...

Article

Hans Frei

(b Winterthur, Dec 22, 1908; d Zurich, Dec 9, 1994).

Swiss architect, sculptor, painter, industrial designer, graphic designer and writer. He attended silversmithing classes at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Zurich from 1924 to 1927. Then, inspired by the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes (1925), Paris, by the works of Le Corbusier and by a competition entry (1927) for the Palace of the League of Nations, Geneva, by Hannes Meyer and Hans Wittwer (1894–1952), he decided to become an architect and enrolled in the Bauhaus, Dessau, in 1927. He studied there for two years as a pupil of Josef Albers, László Moholy-Nagy, Paul Klee and Vasily Kandinsky, mainly in the field of ‘free art’. In 1929 he returned to Zurich. After working on graphic designs for the few modern buildings being constructed, he built his first work, his own house and studio (1932–3) in Zurich-Höngg; although this adheres to the principles of the new architecture, it retains echoes of the traditional, for example in the gently sloping saddle roof....

Article

Philip Attwood

(b Munich, Feb 28, 1865; d Oberammergau, Aug 17, 1954).

German painter, medallist, designer and illustrator. He trained as a painter in the Munich Akademie from 1884, and initially won fame in this art with large decorative schemes on mythological or religious themes (e.g. Bacchanal, c. 1888; Munich, Villa Schülein) and portraits painted in a broad, realistic manner (e.g. Elise Meier-Siel, 1889; Munich, Schack-Gal.). He taught at the Munich Kunstgewerbeschule from 1902 to 1910. In 1905 he taught himself die-engraving and began making struck and cast medals, producing in all some 200, which combine his decorative abilities with the harsher style of his younger contemporaries (e.g. the bronze medal of Anton von Knoezinger, 1907; see 1985 exh. cat., no. 23). In 1907 and 1927 he produced models for coinage. Dasio also worked as a poster designer and book illustrator, as well as designing for stained glass and jewellery. The decorative symbolism of his earlier work in black and white (e.g. the cover for ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1905, in Paris; died 12 November 2000, in Paris.

Painter, engraver, illustrator, designer, medallist, graphic designer.

Raymond Gid designed his first posters in 1925, including Tennis Internationals (1925), Musée de l'Homme, Paris (1931) and the review ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 27 October 1872, in Pforzheim; died 8 June 1943, in Jugenheim.

Sculptor (bronze), draughtsman, painter, engraver (wood), graphic designer. Religious subjects, portraits. Medals.

Darmstadt Artists' Colony.

Daniel Greiner had been a pastor, bur he decided, after a conflict with the authorities in his parish of Schotten, to turn to art instead. He trained in Paris, then at the Bildhauerschule (school of sculpture) in Berlin. In ...

Article

Tadeusz Chrzanowski

(b Łany, nr Warsaw, Jan 14, 1904, d Warsaw, March 21, 1958).

Polish painter, illustrator, metalworker, designer and writer. From 1924 to 1929 he studied at the Warsaw School of Fine Arts, where he was later an assistant professor (1927–30, 1933–5). From 1929 to 1930 he studied in France. He exhibited his works from 1928 until his death. At the beginning of his career he concentrated on painting, to which he later returned. He became a popular cartoon artist while working for the satirical weekly Szpilki from 1935 to 1939 and from 1946 to 1958. His illustrations to the works of N. V. Gogol and Fyodor Dostoyevsky were highly acclaimed. Grunwald mastered various techniques in metalworking, until 1939 concentrating on jewellery and promoting abstract forms; he also made lighting equipment, particularly lamps, sconces and chandeliers. During this period he introduced avant-garde features into traditional Polish metalwork. In the post-war period he accepted commissions for monumental works, for example gates, screens, mantelpiece designs and lighting units. In Warsaw he designed the decorative elements for the ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 17 May 1880, in Chemnitz; died 6 September 1944, in Stuttgart.

Painter, decorative designer, graphic designer. Objets d'art, ceramics, decorative arts, silverware, jewels.

Darmstadt Artists' Colony.

Paul Haustein studied at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Dresden in 1896, and then in 1897...

Article

British, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1962, in Tenterden, Kent.

Painter, printmaker, graphic artist. Figures, architecture.

Young British Artists.

Gary Hume studied at the Liverpool Polytechnic from 1985 to 1986, and at Goldsmiths College in London from 1986 to 1988. He was among a group of Goldsmith's graduates that featured in a show curated by fellow student Damien Hirst in ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 1874, in Neustadt bei Leipzig; died 1947, in Erbach/Westerwald.

Painter, draughtsman, interior designer, graphic designer. Designs (furniture, fabrics, porcelain, precious metals, jewels).

Jugendstil.

Erich Kleinhempel first trained with Oskar Haebler in his graphics studio in Dresden, then entered the Kunstgewerbeschule in Dresden, where he studied ...

Article

D. C. Barrett

(Louise)

(b London, April 25, 1931).

English painter and printmaker. She studied in London at Goldsmiths College (1949–52) and the Royal College of Art (1952–5). From 1958 to 1959 she worked in an advertising agency while painting in a pointillist technique. She was encouraged in this by her teacher, the painter Maurice de Sausmarez (d 1970), who directed her to study the art of Seurat. Her interest lay in the energy and colour vibrations radiated by objects, seen in Pink Landscape (1960; London, priv. col., see 1978 exh. cat., no. 3), which depicts the violent colour vibrations given off by an Italian landscape in intense heat. She later conveyed a similar effect of heat on landscape, from shale on a French mountain, in Static 3 (1966; U. Sydney, Power Gal. Contemp. A.), composed of 625 tiny ovals.

After her experiments with pointillism Riley turned to colour field painting (...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1902, in Paris.

Painter, poster artist, worker in precious metals. Jewels.

Gérard Sandoz's father kept a goldsmith's shop and his uncle, the decorative artist and architect Paul Follot, introduced him to modern design. He created remarkably restrained jewellery, often made of composite materials....

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Born 22 March 1875, in London; died 1963.

Painter, illustrator, poster artist, decorative artist. Cityscapes, architectural views, scenes with figures.

Fred Taylor studied at the Académie Julian in Paris and Goldsmiths College in London. He became one of Britain's foremost poster artists and received regular commissions from London Transport, LNER and shipping companies from the turn of the century until the 1940s. He also worked as an illustrator and decorative artist, notably designing decorative schemes for the former Underwriter's Room at Lloyds of London, and murals for Austin Reed's red laquer room in ...

Article

Italian, 15th century, male.

Born 1435, in Florence; died 7 October 1488, in Venice.

Painter, sculptor, goldsmith, musician. Religious subjects, historical figures. Equestrian statues.

Florentine School.

Andrea Verrocchio's biographical details are not really known, but his works are proof of the important place he occupies in the history of art. It is known that he was born in Florence in ...

Article

Shearer West

(b ?Yarmouth, 25 April ?1721; d London, Feb 6, 1786).

English draughtsman, illustrator and painter. In 1735 he was apprenticed to a goldsmith; he studied at the St Martin’s Lane Academy, London, where he was influenced by Gravelot. He worked briefly as a decorative painter in partnership with Francis Hayman, presenting topographical roundels of Christ’s Hospital, St Thomas’s Hospital and Greenwich Hospital to the Foundling Hospital (all before 1748; in situ).

Wale was among the most prolific book illustrators of the third quarter of the 18th century, producing illustrations for over 100 publications. The fact that he did not engrave his own designs may have contributed to the enormity of his output: he usually supplied only a pen-and-ink drawing, sometimes tinted, which would then be engraved; he could also be repetitive. Around 1751 he designed a series of prints of Vauxhall Gardens, which were etched and engraved by Thomas Bowles (b c. 1712) and Johann Sebastian Müller (...