French term for openwork, used in the decorative arts principally with reference to metalwork, bookbinding and heraldry. In metalwork, it denotes the piercing or perforation of sheet metal, a practice found as early as the ancient Egyptian period. In bookbinding, the term ajouré binding refers to a style that emerged in late 15th-century Venice in which bindings were embellished with pierced or translucent patterns, typically open designs of foliage. In heraldry, an ...
J. M. Rogers
Arab metalworker. He is known from signatures on two undated inlaid wares, the Baptistère de St Louis (Paris, Louvre, LP 16, signed in six places) and the Vasselot Bowl (Paris, Louvre, MAO 331, signed once). His style is characterized by bold compositions of large figures encrusted with silver plaques on which details are elaborately chased. His repertory develops themes characteristic of later 13th-century metalwork from Mosul (...
Lisa M. Binder
Ghanaian sculptor, active in Nigeria. He earned a bachelor’s degree in sculpture (1968) and a postgraduate diploma in art education from the University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana (1969). After graduation he taught at the Specialist Training College (now University of Winneba), Ghana, in a position vacated by the eminent sculptor Vincent Kofi. From ...
Togolese, 20th – 21st century, male.
Born 11 November 1968, in Lomé.
Painter (mixed media).
A self-taught artist, Tetevi Azankpo works with recycled materials such as rusting receptacles, lengths of metal wire and rubber to produce fantasy figurines.
He has exhibited at group exhibitions, among them ...
Paula Girshick Ben-Amos
Kingdom in Edo (formerly Bendel) State, southern Nigeria. Its capital is Benin City. Although the kingdom, the city and its art have become known to the world under the name Benin, the people of Benin call themselves, their kingdom, their city and their language Edo. The kingdom and city of Benin should not be confused with the geographically distinct country of ...
Italian, 20th century, male.
Active also active in France and in Egypt.
Born 1910, in Igalo; died 5 August 2000, in Milan.
Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, architect, sculptor, decorative designer. Landscapes with figures, landscapes, architectural views. Stage sets, monuments, medals.
Crali was born in what is now called Croatia. Several months later, his family settled in Zara (now Zadar), where he lived until ...
Belgian, 20th – 21st century, female.
Born 1950, in Kamisuku (former Belgian Congo).
Sculptor, medallist. Statuettes, busts.
Debay was a pupil of the sculptor and medallist René Harvent, and went on to become his working partner. She works in bronze and produces cast, struck and chased medals....
South African, 20th century, female.
Active in Canada from 1969.
Born 17 September 1936, in Piet Retief, South Africa.
Engraver (etching/aquatint), screen printer, watercolourist, photographer.
Jennifer Dickson studied at Goldsmiths in London and from 1961 to 1965 at the Atelier 17 engraving studio in Paris run by S.W. Hayter. She later spent time in Jamaica and the USA. In Canada she worked both as an artist and teacher. She was elected a member of the Royal Academy in London in ...
French, 19th century, male.
Active in Paris at the beginning of the 19th century.
Jean Joseph Dubois did numerous drawings of the Egyptian artefacts preserved in the Louvre.
Egyptian, 20th century, female.
Active from 1925 in France.
Born 24 April 1907, in Alexandria; died 1 March 1986.
Daria Gamsaragan went to France to study sculpture, settling there in 1925. She entered the academy of La Grande Chaumière and became a pupil of Bourdelle. She also worked with Csaky and Constant. From ...
South African painter and printmaker of English birth. He earned an Arts and Crafts Certificate at Goldsmiths College, University of London, in 1951 and a National Diploma in Design in 1953, the same year in which he emigrated to South Africa. Considered one of the country’s greatest painters, his works are in many national collections and have been exhibited internationally. His best known work explores the the human condition sardonically, depicting people as self-concerned, lacking conscience and infinitely unaware of their own fallibility. Richly painted, his pieces consistently convey a paradox between beauty and grotesqueness. Alfred Jarry’s play ...
British, 20th – 21st century, male.
Born 30 December 1957, in Harare, Zimbabwe.
Stephen Hugues studied at Goldsmith's College, London, from 1984 to 1987. He assisted Richard Deacon from 1990 to 1992. His work is an invitation to go on a journey of discovery, to plunge into the depths of sealed containers or carefully wrought wooden boxes that are crying out to be opened. Inside, one discovers all sorts of brightly coloured dismantalable polyethylene toys, but these cannot be removed from their wrapping without destroying them. In ...
Town in Nigeria (pop. c. 15,000 in the 1990s), situated 40 km south-east of Onitsha, which is on the River Niger. The name means ‘Great Igbo’ in the Igbo language. It is also the name given to the ancient culture that produced the elaborate metalwork and ceramics, dated to the 10th century ...
French, 20th century, male.
Born 29 September 1935, in Philippeville, Algeria.
Painter, draughtsman, watercolourist, engraver, medallist, illustrator. Figures, landscapes. Wall decorations, designs for stained glass, postage stamps.
Irolla's figurative painting is traditional, depicting the skies of Champagne, its valleys, vineyards, village churches and streets. He executed stained glass windows (Châlons-sur-Marne), mural decorations (Vitry-le-François, St-Memmie, Châlons-sur-Marne) and numerous postage stamps. He also illustrated several books, notably ...
French, 20th century, female.
Born 1930, in Port Saïd, Egypt.
Painter, sculptor, medallist.
Yvette de La Fremondière's father was from Normandy, her mother was Greek and her grandmother Slovakian. She spent her childhood living on the banks of the Suez Canal and completed her high school education there. She went to Paris in ...
South African silversmith of German birth. Evidence suggests that he worked in the Netherlands for a period before moving to the Cape, in the service of the Dutch East India Company, arriving on 30 December 1733. He set up business on his own on 4 October 1735...
French, 20th century, male.
Active in France.
Born 1927, in Egypt; died 12 February 2001.
Pierre Manoli was a pupil at the École des Arts Décoratifs in Paris from 1951 to 1955 and at the École des Beaux-Arts from 1956 to 1957. He worked with a broad range of materials including tin, aluminium, copper, brass, steel, cast metal, bronze, granite, synthetic resin and ceramic. He invented techniques such as projecting the molten metal into water and melting granite using a blowtorch. Running in parallel to the diversity of materials used, Manoli dealt with a variety of themes, the material dictating the spirit of the work or vice versa, moving indiscriminately between figuration and abstraction. This means that his work is not readily definable or easy to grasp. The most frequently recurring theme is that of the human figure, frequently in a group setting, often performing acrobatics, sometimes suspended in mid-air, evoking movement and sometimes mobile....
French, 19th – 20th century, male.
Born 15 August 1856 or or, in Nancy; died 1943, in Sétif, Algeria.
Painter (gouache), pastellist, draughtsman, sculptor, medallist, designer, engraver, lithographer. History painting, figures, landscapes.
School of Nancy.
Victor Prouvé was the son of Gengoult Prouvé and a student of Devilly and Cabanel. His son Jean Prouvé was a construction engineer who, from 1934, perfected the technique of mur-rideau (walls made from glass). Prouvé tried to achieve an integration of all the arts in a spirit of ornamentalism approaching that of his friend Émile Gallé, with whom he and Louis Majorelle helped create the style of the Nancy School in the context of Art Nouveau....
South African silversmith of German birth. In 1768 he arrived at Cape Town, where he worked as sword-cutler in the service of the Dutch East India Company until 1778. The following year he started his own business. He was the most accomplished of the Cape silversmiths and the first to introduce the ...
Stephen K. Scher
Italian medallist and sculptor. He was trained at the Accademia di Belle Arti, Palermo (1918–19), and in Rome, at the Accademia di Belle Arti (1920–25) and at the Scuola d’Arte della Medaglia (1920–23). He taught sculpture at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Palermo from ...