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Article

Michèle Lavallée

[Fr.: ‘new art’]

Decorative style of the late 19th century and the early 20th that flourished principally in Europe and the USA. Although it influenced painting and sculpture, its chief manifestations were in architecture and the decorative and graphic arts, the aspects on which this survey concentrates. It is characterized by sinuous, asymmetrical lines based on organic forms; in a broader sense it encompasses the geometrical and more abstract patterns and rhythms that were evolved as part of the general reaction to 19th-century historicism. There are wide variations in the style according to where it appeared and the materials that were employed.

Art Nouveau has been held to have had its beginnings in 1894 or 1895. A more appropriate date would be 1884, the year the progressive group Les XX was founded in Belgium, and the term was used in the periodical that supported it, Art Moderne: ‘we are believers in Art Nouveau’. The origin of the name is usually attributed to ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born February 1903, in Tunis; died 24 January 1978, in Aix-en-Provence.

Painter, architect, decorative designer, designer, poster artist. Wall decorations, stage costumes and sets, furniture, advertising art.

Art et Lumière.

Félix Tahar Marie Aublet was the son of the Orientalist painter Albert Aublet. He was brought up both in Neuilly, France, and in a Moorish palace in Tunis, where the family spent six months of the year. His second forename, Tahar, means 'blessed one' in Arabic. In ...

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Active in London.

Born 10 March 1903, in Braintree (Essex); died 21 November 1989, in Saffron Walden (Essex).

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, illustrator, printmaker, graphic designer. Military subjects, rustic scenes, landscapes, seascapes, harbour scenes, architectural views, church interiors. Decorative panels.

Edward Bawden studied at Cambridge School of Art ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 April 1868, in Hamburg; died 27 February 1940, in Berlin.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, architect, designer, decorative artist, graphic designer. Posters, furniture, wallpaper, carpets, glassware, ceramics, table services, jewellery, silverwork, objets d'art, typefaces.

Jugendstil, functional school.

Die Sieben (Group of Seven), Deutscher Werkbund...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 29 October 1892, in Lyons; died 1956.

Painter, decorative designer, poster artist. Figure compositions.

Pierre de Belair studied with Adolphe Déchenaud, François Flameng and Jean Paul Laurens. He was a member of the Société Lyonnaise des Beaux-Arts and the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts, where he exhibited between ...

Article

British, 20th century, female.

Born 13 May 1879, near London; died 7 April 1961, in Sussex.

Painter, engraver, illustrator, designer, graphic designer. Still-lifes, landscapes, portraits. Designs for wallpapers and fabrics, furniture, stage sets.

Bloomsbury Group, Omega Workshops, London Group, Euston Road School.

Vanessa Bell was the daughter of Sir Leslie Stephen, the sister of Virginia Woolf and the wife of the art historian Clive Bell. She started her training with the Royal Academician Sir Arthur Cope, and continued it at the Royal Academy of Art under the direction of the American portrait painter John Singer Sargent between 1900 and 1904....

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA.

Born 15 March 1883, in Stuttgart; died 29 May 1972, in New York.

Painter, sculptor, graphic designer, poster artist, illustrator, architect, designer, decorative artist. Designs for carpets, advertising art, furniture, lamps, wallpaper.

Jugendstil.

Deutscher Werkbund.

Lucian Bernhard studied painting at the Kunstakademie in Munich, but taught himself design. He was active in Berlin. In ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Boston, MA, July 10, 1868; d La Mesa, CA, Jan 25, 1962).

American book-illustrator and designer of posters, typefaces and furniture. In 1893 Bradley began designing for Vogue magazine. He subsequently worked for Ladies’ Home Journal, and in 1901–2 published an influential series of eight articles on ‘The Bradley House’; the designs in these articles (and another three in 1905) seem not to have been implemented, but they nonetheless exerted a seminal influence on public taste and on subsequent furniture design; his designs for pianos were used by Chickering & Sons of Boston. Bradley also designed two series of plates for Royal Doulton: ‘Golfers’ (...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 3 September 1878, in Strasbourg; died 18 April 1947, in Munich.

Painter, graphic designer, draughtsman, interior designer, illustrator, engraver (wood). Designs for tapestries, ex-libris plates, posters, designs (wallpaper/jewellery).

Jugendstil.

Die Sieben (Group of Seven). Darmstadt Artists' Colony.

Paul Bürck was apprenticed to a decorative painter in Munich, and was also able to attend the Kunstgewerbeschule (school of industrial art and design). He was one of the first artists to be invited to the Mathildenhöhe artists' colony in Darmstadt between ...

Article

Céelle  

French, 20th century, female.

Born 25 August 1929, in Paris.

Painter, engraver, draughtswoman (including ink), watercolourist, graphic designer. Scenes with figures, landscapes, urban landscapes, architectural views, seascapes, boats, still-lifes, cats, flowers. Wall decorations, designs for tapestries.

Céelle studied at the École des Arts Décoratifs and the École Estienne in Paris. She worked in advertising as a graphic artist. Her work as a graphic artist is evident in her acuity of line, and the rigour of her composition. She generally paints in greys and browns, although she has occasionally surprised with her subtle colours, especially in the years ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active also active in France.

Born 6 March 1866, in Flensburg; died 5 January 1945, in Wiesbaden.

Painter, engraver, draughtsman, decorative designer, graphic designer. Portraits, landscapes, urban landscapes, still-lifes, flowers, decorative motifs. Designs for carpets, designs (furniture/posters/jewellery/book-binding).

Jugendstil.

Die Sieben (Group of Seven)...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 22 January 1873, in Danzig (now Gdansk); died 23 December 1942, in Frankfurt am Main.

Painter, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator, graphic designer, interior designer. History painting, portraits, landscapes. Posters, designs (furniture/jewellery).

Jugendstil.

Darmstadt Artists' Colony.

Johann Vincenz Cissarz trained at the Dresden academy between ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 14 February 1925, in Alexandria, Egypt.

Painter, engraver, illustrator, graphic designer. Posters, wall decorations, designs for tapestries, designs for carpets.

From 1942, Jean Cortot studied under Othon Friesz at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière, and together with Busse, Calmettes, Patrix and others, was a co-founder of the ...

Article

Christopher Newall

(b Liverpool, Aug 15, 1845; d Horsham, W. Sussex, March 14, 1915).

English painter, illustrator, designer, writer and teacher. He showed artistic inclinations as a boy and was encouraged to draw by his father, the portrait painter and miniaturist Thomas Crane (1808–59). A series of illustrations to Tennyson’s The Lady of Shalott (Cambridge, MA, Harvard U., Houghton Lib.) was shown first to Ruskin, who praised the use of colour, and then to the engraver William James Linton, to whom Crane was apprenticed in 1859. From 1859 to 1862 Crane learnt a technique of exact and economical draughtsmanship on woodblocks. His early illustrative works included vignette wood-engravings for John R. Capel Wise’s The New Forest: Its History and its Scenery (1862).

During the mid-1860s Crane evolved his own style of children’s book illustration. These so-called ‘toy books’, printed in colour by Edmund Evans, included The History of Jenny Wren and The Fairy Ship. Crane introduced new levels of artistic sophistication to the art of illustration: after ...

Article

Israeli, 20th century, male.

Active from 1948 active in Israel.

Born 16 December 1908, in Bucharest.

Painter, engraver, poster artist, graphic designer, decorative designer. Designs for tapestries, and stained glass windows.

He was an architecture student at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where he later studied painting at the Scandinavian Academy and at the Académie Julian ...

Article

Russian, 20th century, female.

Active in France from 1905.

Born 14 November 1885, in Gradiesk; died 5 December 1979, in Paris.

Painter, decorative artist, poster artist.

Orphism.

Groupe des Réalités Nouvelles, Espace.

Born into a poor Jewish family in Ukraine, Sonia Delaunay was orphaned at the age of five and raised, though not adopted, by her maternal uncle, the affluent Henri Terk, in St Petersburg. She was interested in ethnology, mathematics and painting and visited Finland, Switzerland, Italy and Germany. Between 1903 and 1905, she studied drawing in Karlsruhe in the studio of Schmidt-Reutter, and she thus discovered German Expressionism. She went to Paris in 1905 and settled there definitively. She attended the Académie de la Palette, meeting Ozenfant, Segonzac and Boussingault and was introduced to engraving. She was greatly impressed by Van Gogh and Gauguin and the Fauve canvases exhibited at Wilhelm Uhde’s gallery, the collector and art dealer whom she married in 1908. Two years later, having met Robert Delaunay, she divorced Uhde and married Delaunay. Together with her husband, she began to devote herself to painting. ‘The passion of painting is our principle link’, she wrote....

Article

revised by Margaret Barlow

(b Blue Earth, MN, Nov 23, 1894; d Vero Beach, FL, April 20, 1989).

American interior and industrial designer. Deskey gained a degree in architecture and studied painting before working in advertising. From 1922 to 1924 he was head of the art department at Juniata College, Huntingdon, PA. In 1921 and 1925 he made trips to Paris, where he attended the Ecole de la Grande Chaumière and the Académie Colarossi, before returning to New York in 1926 as a champion of modern art and design. In 1926–7 he created the city’s first modern window displays for the Franklin Simon and Saks Fifth Avenue department stores. In 1927 he was joined by the designer Philip Vollmer, and the partnership became Deskey–Vollmer, Inc. (to c. 1929). Deskey expanded into designing interiors, furniture, lamps, and textiles, becoming a pioneer of the Style moderne (as Art Deco was known in America). His earliest model for the interior of an apartment was shown at the American Designers’ Gallery, New York, in ...

Article

Klaus Lankheit

(Johann)

(b ?April 9, 1691; d Mannheim, Jan 11, 1752).

German sculptor, stuccoist, draughtsman and illustrator. He was the most important sculptor active in Franconia and the Palatinate in the first half of the 18th century; nevertheless, although his very individual late Baroque sculpture, mostly carved in wood, was highly regarded by his contemporaries, he was quickly forgotten after his death. His rich oeuvre was severely depleted, particularly as a result of World War II. It was only after that date that his importance was reassessed. Egell probably served an apprenticeship with the Würzburg sculptor Balthasar Esterbauer (1672–1722) and collaborated on the interior decoration of the Banz monastery. His first documented work is an expressive Crucifix made in 1716 for St Michael’s Monastery in Bamberg (now in St Otto, Bamberg). His stylistic development was affected by his work between 1716–17 and 1719 as one of the team directed by Balthasar Permoser, which made all the sculptural decorations at the Zwinger in Dresden for ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 15 December 1868, in Frankenstein, Silesia, near Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poland); died 11 July 1940, in Munich.

Painter, graphic designer, draughtsman, illustrator, decorative designer. Posters, theatre sets, designs (art objects/jewellery/glassware/fabrics).

Die Scholle group. Utting-Holzhausen artists' colony.

Fritz Erler was educated at the Strehlen School, then began his artistic studies in Albrecht Bräuer's studio at the Kunstschule in Breslau. There he applied himself to life drawing. He completed his artistic education by travelling through France, Italy and northern Germany. In 1892, Erler went to Paris and entered the Académie Julian. He remained there until 1894, receiving guidance from Adolphe Bouguereau and Gabriel Ferrier. After a brief trip to Berlin, he returned to Breslau in 1894, and devoted his time to studying anatomy, perspective and ...

Article

(b Frankenstein nr Breslau [now Wroclaw], Dec 15, 1868; d Munich, 1940).

German painter, illustrator and interior designer. He studied at the Kunstschule in Breslau under the German painter Albrecht Bräuer (1830–97), and later at the Pinakothek in Munich, absorbing the work of the Old Masters. He continued his training in Paris at the Académie Julian (1892–4), and established a studio in Munich (1895). With other non-academic painters of the period he rejected the influence of the French Impressionists and allied with the Symbolist painters of the late 19th century. He drew inspiration from wild places and as a young man travelled to the Baltic Sea and to the Riviera and Brittany coasts. He was fascinated by Norse legends, Grimms’ fairy tales and Johann Gottfried Herder’s Stimmen der Völker, all of which had an impact on his subject-matter. His early paintings of bucolic landscapes with figures were executed in flat, calm colours with well-defined outlines, reminiscent of the work of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes. In a long, prolific career he designed costumes and stage sets, stained glass, ceramics and bookbindings....