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Article

Russian, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 18 February 1912, in Baku.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, engraver, decorative designer. Religious subjects, figures, nudes, scenes with figures, landscapes, seascapes, architectural views, still-lifes, animals. Designs for tapestries, designs for mosaics, murals, church decoration.

A self-taught artist of Armenian origin, George Akopian went to France in ...

Article

Italian, 17th century, male.

Born c. 1600, in Bologna; died after 1678.

Painter, decorative designer, fresco artist, engraver. Religious subjects, architectural views, perspectives, landscapes. Church decoration.

Studied initially under Bernardino Baldi, then Calvaert, following whose death in 1619 Ambrogi spent years studying with Francesco Brizio (from whom he takes his sobriquet Menichino del Brizio). Ambrogi quickly made a reputation for himself as a painter of frescoes and oils, not least in his depiction of landscape, architecture and perspective. The Uffizi in Florence houses two of his religious landscapes; his ...

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time.

Astrology developed into a scientific branch of learning in ancient Greece, but because of the opposition of the Church Fathers it was transmitted to early medieval Europe in only fragmentary form in technically unsophisticated textbooks and popular divinatory genres. Literary and scientific texts provided more general ideas about the nature and attributes of the planets which were influential on later iconography. The first significant astrological images appear in 11th-century illustrated astronomical texts (e.g. London, BL, Cotton MS. Tiberius BV), which were acquired and produced by monasteries to aid with time-keeping and the construction of the Christian calendar....

Article

Italian, 17th century, male.

Born 4 October 1604, in Florence; died 1656, in Madrid.

Painter, draughtsman, architect. Religious subjects. Wall decorations.

Baccio del Bianco studied painting under Giovanni Biliverti in Florence from 1612, then architecture under the court architect Giulio Parigi. He was retained around ...

Article

Italian, 18th century, male.

Born 1728, in Vienna; died after 1778, in Florence.

Painter, draughtsman. Architectural views, interiors, church interiors. Wall decorations, church decoration.

Son of Giuseppe Bibiena and grandson of Ferdinando Bibiena, at the age of 20 Carlo Bibiena entered the service of Frederick, Margrave of Bayreuth and worked alongside his father on the construction of the new theatre there. At the invitation of the Elector of Bavaria, he left for Munich in ...

Article

Italian, 17th – 18th century, male.

Born 18 August 1657, in Bologna; died 3 January 1743, in Bologna.

Painter, draughtsman, decorative designer, architect. Architectural views, church interiors, harbour scenes. Church decoration, stage sets.

Son of Giovanni Maria Galli, Ferdinando Bibiena studied alongside his father under Carlo Cignani and went on to work for the architect Troili (known as Paradosso) and for Mannini and Aldrovandini. His mentor Cignani recommended him to Duke Ranuccio Farnese in Parma, who appointed him first painter and architect to his court. He remained there under the Duke's successor Francesco, dividing the next 24 years of his life between Parma and Piacenza. His work includes the decoration of the Duke of Mirandola's Casino della Motta (in collaboration with his brother Francesco); two chapels in the Jesuit church in Reggio; a chapel in Parma, together with the façade and a chamber in the ducal palace; a chapel in the Palazzo Maggiore; and the Cappella Maggiore in the church of S Sepolcro. In Piacenza, he painted the oratory ceiling in the church of S Vincenzo, scenes for the convent of S Sisto, and cupolas for the Chiesa della Morte....

Article

Italian, 18th century, male.

Born 5 January 1696, in Parma; died 1756, in Berlin.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman (including ink/wash), decorative designer, architect. Architectural views, interiors. Stage sets, church decoration, theatre decoration.

Second son and pupil of Ferdinando Bibiena, Giuseppe Bibiena accompanied his father to Barcelona and on his appointment to the court of Vienna in ...

Article

Christian Norberg-Schulz

Norwegian architectural and furniture design partnership formed in 1922 by Gudolf Blakstad (b Gjerpen, 19 May 1893; d Oslo, 1986) and Herman Munthe-Kaas (b Christiania [now Oslo], 25 May 1890; d Oslo, 5 March 1970). Blakstad was awarded his diploma as an architect at the Norwegian Institute of Technology in Trondheim in 1916. He collaborated with Jens Dunker on the New Theatre, Oslo, from 1919 to 1929. After a preliminary training in Christiania, Munthe-Kaas finished his education at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm in 1919.

From the beginning of their careers Blakstad and Munthe-Kaas played a leading role in Norwegian architecture. After studying in Italy in the early 1920s, they advocated Neo-classicism in architectural projects, furniture designs and writings. In 1922 they won the competition for the new Town Hall in Haugesund (1924–31), a major work of 20th-century Norwegian Neo-classicism. Above a powerfully rusticated basement, the long office wing with its regular fenestration contrasts with the higher City Council Hall, accentuated by pairs of monumental, free-standing columns. In general the effect is of robust strength and an exciting interplay of horizontals and verticals....

Article

French, 17th century, male.

Born 1614 according to his death certificate, in Paris, in 1617 according to some sources; died 21 June 1689, in the Hôtel de Ville in Lyons.

Painter, draughtsman (including red chalk), engraver, architect, decorative designer. Historical subjects, mythological subjects, religious subjects, portraits, landscapes...

Article

Alison Manges Nogueira

Monumental, marble paschal Candlestick of the late 12th to early 13th century with reliefs signed by Nicolaus de Angelo and Vassallettus now in S Paolo fuori le Mura, Rome. The imposing column (h. 5.6 m), adorned with six registers of reliefs and surmounted by a fluted candle holder, rests upon a base of sculpted lions, sphinxes, rams and female figures. The upper and lower reliefs bear vegetal and ornamental patterns while the three central registers portray Christ before Caiaphas, the Mocking of Christ, Christ before Pilate, Pilate Washing his Hands, the Crucifixion, the Resurrection and the Ascension. The culminating Easter scenes reflect the paschal candle’s function during the Easter season as a symbol of Christ resurrected, as evoked in an inscription on the base. A second fragmentary inscription refers to the unidentifiable patron’s desire for commemoration. A third inscription identifies Nicolaus de Angelo as the master sculptor and Petrus Vassallettus as playing a secondary role. Both were active in the second half of the 12th to the early 13th century and came from leading families of Roman sculptors: the Vassalletti and Cosmati (Nicolaus’s family). The candlestick is the only work signed by and securely attributed to Nicolaus and the scope of his contribution remains uncertain. A plausible theory attributes the base and first register to Petrus, based upon similarities to works signed by him and ascribed to his family, such as the cloister of S Giovanni in Laterano in Rome and the narthex of S Lorenzo fuori le Mura in Rome. Nicolaus probably executed the Christological scenes, distinguishable for their more dynamic, expressive figures and decorative chisel work, and appropriate for the master sculptor because of their centrality and significance. Early Christian sarcophagi and Carolingian ivories may have provided models for the figural types. This form of paschal candlestick was probably inspired by Roman columnar monuments carved with triumphal scenes....

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Born 1509, in Gandino near Bergamo; died 1579, in Madrid, in 1569 according to the Larousse Dictionary.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman (including wash), architect, decorative artist, art restorer. Religious subjects, historical subjects, mythological subjects. Wall decorations, frescoes.

After a study trip to Rome, paid for by his protector Tobia Pallavicini, Giovanni Battista Castello (Il Bergamasco) produced a series of works in Genoa and Bergamo. His best-known works in Bergamo include the fresco ...

Article

Portuguese, 18th century, male.

Born at the beginning of the 18th century; died 1760.

Painter, decorative artist. Perspectives, architectural views. Church decoration.

Lourenço da Cunha worked in Rome for a number of years. He returned to Lisbon in 1744 and decorated several of the city's churches....

Article

French, 18th century, male.

Born May 1743, in Auxerre; died 17 March 1804, in Stockholm.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman (including ink/wash), engraver (etching), caricaturist, decorative artist, architect. Religious subjects, historical subjects, military subjects, church interiors, architectural interiors, landscapes with figures, landscapes, urban views, harbour scenes, architectural views, costume studies...

Article

Belgian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 October 1865, in Brussels; died 1959.

Painter, decorative designer, sculptor, architect. Religious subjects, figures, portraits, genre scenes, landscapes, seascapes.

Dierickx was a pupil of Jean Portaels and Joseph Stallaert. In 1887 he won the Godecharle Prize, which enabled him to travel in Italy. He regularly participated in the activities of the ...

Article

German, 17th century, male.

Stonemason, sculptor, painter, decorative designer. Religious subjects.

Dub was active in Cleves. He was made a burgher of Lucerne (Switzerland) on 7 March 1613 and member of the Brotherhood of St Luke. He worked on the choir of the main church and executed a tablet with a crucifix on the altar of St Henry which was destroyed by fire in ...

Article

Italian, 17th century, male.

Born 1634, in Castello della Fratta, near Rovigo; died 1708, in Ferrara.

Painter, draughtsman. Religious subjects, landscapes, architectural views. Theatre decoration.

Initially a figure painter, Francesco Ferrari went on to study decoration under Gabriel Rossi. Ferrari decorated theatres in Vienna and San Lorenzo and worked for the Marquis degli Obizzi. He also painted several pictures for various churches in Bologna and Ferrara....

Article

Italian, 19th century, male.

Born 8 September 1833, in Milan; died 11 May 1907, in Milan.

Painter, watercolourist. Landscapes, architectural views, church interiors. Stage sets, theatre decoration.

In 1867 Carlo Ferrario decorated La Scala in Milan, and also designed stage sets there, particularly for the works of Verdi. From ...

Article

Italian, 18th century, male.

Born 3 November 1707, in Andorno; died 31 March 1794, in Andorno.

Painter, draughtsman, decorative artist. Religious subjects, figures, landscapes, architectural views. Stage sets.

Bernardino Galliari was one of the three sons of Giovanni Galliari the Elder. He started out working under Giorgio Clerici. He and his two brothers were in great demand all over Europe....

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Born 1499, in Rome; died 1 November 1546., in Mantua

Painter (including gouache and fresco), draughtsman, decorative artist, architect, engineer. Historical, mythological, religious and military subjects; battle scenes, portraits, animals. Murals, wall decorations.

School of Rome.

Knowledge of Giulio Romano’s early career stems from Giorgio Vasari, who wrote that Giulio worked as an assistant in Raphael’s workshop, and became a well-loved pupil. By 1516, he was working in the Stanza dell’Incendio in the papal apartments (Vatican Palace, 1509–1517), executing Raphael’s designs for the fresco narratives. Giulio also played a prominent role in painting the adjoining Loggia of Leo X de’ Medici (1518–1519), alongside Giovanni da Udine and other members of Raphael’s workshop. Raphael received commissions to decorate the Villa Farnesina (Rome, 1513) for Agostino Chigi, and design and decorate the Villa Madama for the future Pope Clement VII de’ Medici (Rome, commissioned 1518), and Giulio participated in both projects. When Raphael died in 1520, Giulio inherited Raphael’s workshop, along with Giovan Francesco Penni, and the two completed a number of his unfinished works, most notably the frescoes in the Sala di Costantino (Vatican Palace, 1519–1524), for which Raphael had left drawings that Giulio likely modified. Giulio adapted Raphael’s use of classical forms in his work, borrowing images from ancient sculpture and reliefs, yet he also incorporated greater ornament and a subtle wit that distinguished him from his master....

Article

Italian, 17th century, male.

Born 1606, in Bologna; died 1680, in Rome.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, decorative designer, architect. Religious subjects, mythological subjects, portraits, landscapes, landscapes with figures. Murals.

Giovanni Francesco Grimaldi was related to the Carracci family, and received an artistic training at the school of these masters that was as advanced and extensive as this outstanding era could provide. He was later 'prince' of the Accademia di S Luca twice. He was highly respected as a portraitist, was an expert in the art of engraving, and was highly accomplished in the area of decoration, architecture, and in the use of perspective. He was particularly skilful in the practice of ...