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Article

Horacio Safons

(b Federal, Entre Ríos, Aug 22, 1928; d Buenos Aires, Feb 19, 1996).

Argentine painter, draughtsman and collagist. He studied under Juan Batlle Planas from 1950 to 1953 and quickly established the terms of his work, rooted ideologically in Surrealism and indebted in particular to the work of René Magritte and Giorgio de Chirico. All the elements of his mature art are evident in an early painting, Burning of the Hasidic School in Minsk in 1713 (1954; artist’s col.): architecture, space, light and ordered series. He developed an essentially intellectual approach, working in a variety of media (paintings, drawings, gouaches and collages) in rigorous sequences and picturing objects in cold impersonal light that confers on them a sense of distant majesty. The most common motif is that of a geometric, almost abstract structure, often in the form of a tower pierced by rows of large plain windows. Aizenberg’s work, while far removed from the Surrealist presumption of achieving a synthesis of wakefulness and dream, acquires its strength through the ordering of the unreal and the strange in the search for a transcendent essence capable of perturbing and jolting the viewer by bringing into play the archetypes of silence and solitude....

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1966, in New York.

Sculptor, painter, installation artist. Murals.

Ricci Albenda studied at the Rhode Island School of Design, including courses in architecture, receiving a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree in 1988. His interest in architecture (as well as in graphic design and physics) figures prominently in his installation art, in which he creates environments which challenge the viewer's spatial perceptions. He uses such materials as fibreglass, wallboard, aluminium and acrylic paint. In his exhibition ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1939, in Los Angeles.

Sculptor, painter, collage artist.

Minimal Art, Finish Fetish, Light and Space.

Peter Alexander studied at the University of Pennsylvania from 1957 to 1962, the Architectural Association of London from 1960 to 1962, and the University of California ...

Article

Belgian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in Mexico.

Born 1959, in Antwerp.

Painter, draughtsman, video artist, photographer, installation artist.

Francis Alÿs is of Belgian origin but has lived in Mexico since 1986. He trained as an architect at the Instituto Universitario di Architettura in Venice....

Article

Francis Summers

revised by Martin R. Patrick

(b Antwerp, Aug 22, 1959).

Belgian-born interdisciplinary artist, active in Mexico. He studied architecture at the Institut d’Architecture de Tournai in Belgium (1978–83) and at the Istituto Universitario di Architettura in Venice (1983–6). Alÿs moved to Mexico in 1987 and his art practice initially concentrated on Mexico City as a laboratory of urban living, often documented in the form of evocative, conceptually layered photographs, sculptures, and videos. In the slide series Ambulantes (Pushing and Pulling) (1992–2002), Alÿs photographed street vendors and workers as they passed by carting a wide variety of goods within a ten-block vicinity of his studio. For his project entitled The Liar, The Copy of the Liar (1997) Alÿs created small images of suited men inspired by the commercial sign painters of Mexico City, and subsequently commissioned from them larger versions in their own styles. In this process Alÿs deferred authorship into a semantic chain. Hovering between the banal and the surreal, these works have an uncanny theme, of individuals observed in situations that defy explanation....

Article

Spanish, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active since 1979, also active in the USA.

Born 1952, in Barcelona.

Painter (mixed media), draughtsman.

Frederic Amat studied scenography and architecture from 1969 to 1973, and he also began to paint. His first solo exhibitions took place in Barcelona in ...

Article

Polish, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in Poland and in France from 1980.

Born 17 January 1948, in Bierna.

Painter (including mixed media), poster artist, architect. Frescoes.

Antoni Bachur followed courses in drawing and painting between 1968 and 1972, when he was taught by Kryzanowski, Czajka and Michalowski in Wroclaw. Having graduated in architecture in Wroclaw, he was a pupil of Jean Prouvé in Paris ...

Article

Cecile Johnson

(Losch)

(b Long Beach, CA, March 14, 1941).

American installation artist, painter, printmaker and sculptor. Bartlett studied at Mills College, Oakland, CA (1960–63), and at the Yale School of Art and Architecture, New Haven, CT (1964–5). The progressive approach to modern art taught at Yale and the nearby thriving art scene of New York were instrumental in her early development (1963–early 1970s). Bartlett’s first one-person exhibition was in New York (1970) in the loft of the artist Alan Saret. Nine-point Pieces (1973–4), a later work, was shown at the Paula Cooper Gallery in New York and was experimental both conceptually and materially. Her ambivalent use of systems to establish an order and to oppose it allowed her to explore the material and the conceptual process of making images and objects. Rhapsody (1975–6; priv. col., see exh. cat., p. 21), one of her best-known installations, consists of 988 steel plates covered with screenprint grids and hand-painted Testors enamel and hung on a wall (2.28×47.86 m). Each plate exists individually and in relation to its adjoining plate and may be read vertically or horizontally, creating a mesh of stylistic variability exploring both figurative and non-figurative motifs. Another work of the 1970s is ...

Article

Austrian, 20th century, male.

Active from 1920 active in Germany, and from 1946 in the USA.

Born 5 April 1900, in Haag (Lower Austria); died 15 August 1985, in Santa Barbara (California), USA.

Painter, collage artist, photomontage artist, designer, decorative designer, architect.

In 1919 Bayer studied under the architect Georg Schmidthammer in Linz, and in ...

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Painter, sculptor, mixed media, architect.

Bedel's works are metaphorical. In relief to varying degrees, he combines shiny metal with dull organic materials to create models that resemble towns, while privileging the evocation of the book form. He gives poetic expression to his pessimistic preoccupations concerning the future of humanity....

Article

Austrian, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 1929, in Vienna.

Painter (mixed media), collage artist.

Franz Beer studied architecture and painting at the academy of fine arts in Vienna from 1943 to 1948. Producing works in a gestural style from 1948 and, in 1954...

Article

Dutch, 20th century, male.

Born 1940.

Painter (mixed media). Urban landscapes, architectural views.

Amsterdam, 8 Dec 1987: Equestrian Statue of Coleone, Venice (mixed media/paper, 18 × 25¼ ins/46 × 64 cm) NLG 1,200

Amsterdam, 8 Dec 1988: Horses (oil on canvas, 51¼ × 39¼ ins/130 × 100 cm) ...

Article

Margaret Barlow

(b Pittsburgh, PA, Aug 23, 1940).

American conceptual artist, draughtsman, painter, and writer. He studied painting at the Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh (BFA, 1962). In 1964 Bochner moved to New York. His first exhibition (1966), described by Benjamin Buchloch as the first conceptual art exhibition, was held at the Visual Arts Gallery, School of Visual Arts, New York, and titled Working Drawings and Other Visible Things on Paper Not Necessarily Meant to be Viewed as Art. In his work he investigated the relation between thinking and seeing. In his first mature works (1966), which are both conceptual and perceptual in basis and philosophical in content, he was interested to eliminate the ‘object’ in art and to communicate his own feelings and personal experience, and he did not wish to accept established art-historical conventions. He also experimented with word-drawings (see fig.) and number systems. For his Measurement series (late 1960s) he used black tape and Letraset to create line drawings accompanied by measurements directly on to walls, effectively making large-scale diagrams of the rooms in which they were installed. Bochner continued to make series of installational line drawings into the 1970s and 1980s, but from ...

Article

John Steen

[Eugenius Antonius Maria]

(b Amsterdam, Jan 15, 1913; d Amsterdam, Jan 15, 2002).

Dutch painter and draughtsman. He studied at the Handelsschool (1927–31) and at the Kunstnijverheidsschool (1931–4), both in Amsterdam. During World War II he created Surreal assemblages and abstract drawings, and his work was shown for the first time in 1946 in the Jonge schilders exhibition in the Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam. In August 1948 he joined the Dutch Experimentele Groep, which later became part of Cobra. Compared to the work produced by members of Cobra such as Constant or Karel Appel, his work is dreamy and poetic. His starting-point was the world of the child and humanity in its natural state, where magic, eroticism and cosmos are central notions, for example Walking House (1951; Copenhagen, Paul and Djula Lernø priv. col.). He collected ritual objects and music from primitive peoples.

Until 1960 Brands produced small-scale paintings on canvas and paper, depicting a world full of symbols such as arrows, lock and key and parts of the body. He also created such relief assemblages as ...

Article

Lewis Kachur

(b Argenteuil-sur-Seine, Seine-et-Oise, May 13, 1882; d Paris, Aug 31, 1963).

French painter, collagist, draughtsman, printmaker and sculptor. His most important contribution to the history of art was his role in the development of what became known as Cubism. In this Braque’s work is intertwined with that of his collaborator Pablo Picasso, especially from 1908 to 1912. For a long time it was impossible to distinguish their respective contributions to Cubism, for example in the development of Collage, while Picasso’s fame and notoriety overshadowed the quiet life of Braque.

His family moved in 1890 to Le Havre, where his father had a painting and decorating business. In 1897 Braque entered the municipal art school, where he met and became friendly with Othon Friesz and Raoul Dufy. He joined them in Paris at the turn of the century and, after a year of army service, settled in Montmartre in 1902. He began to visit the Musée du Louvre, where he encountered van Gogh’s work, and that October he began to study at the Académie Humbert, where his fellow students included Francis Picabia and Marie Laurencin. The following year he studied briefly with ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 1903, in Cologne-Lindenthal; died 1983.

Painter (mixed media), draughtsman, engraver. Figures.

Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity).

Gottfried Brockmann worked initially as an apprentice architect and studied painting in his spare time; as of 1922, he and his 'progressive' contemporaries exhibited in Cologne, Düsseldorf and Krefeld. He continued to follow courses at the fine arts academy in Düsseldorf and, by ...

Article

Cecilia Suárez

(b Quito, Sept 8, 1939).

Ecuadorean painter, graphic designer, sculptor, installation artist, architect and teacher. He studied architecture at the Universidad Nacional de Bogotá, Colombia. He worked for the Graham Foundation and the National Endowment for the Arts, Washington, DC, and received a grant to attend the Center for Advanced Visual Studies at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, where he worked with György Kepes. Later he became a professor at the arts faculty of the Universidad Central, Quito. Bueno worked first in graphic design before going on to experiment with the incorporation of technology into art, using laser beams, mechanical pumps, plastic, glass and such elements as water, fire and air, for example in 49 Tubes, exhibited at the Bienal de Arte Coltejer in Medellín in 1972. He also combined visual art with music in such works as Flame Orchards, with music by Paul Earls, which won joint first prize with Kepes in the same exhibition. Exploration into ecological and environmental art led him to experiment with the idea of an aerial view of the urban landscape incorporating military camouflage sheets....

Article

Jorge Glusberg

(b Paraná, Entre Ríos, Dec 28, 1942).

Argentine painter, draughtsman and collagist. She studied at the Escuela Provincial de Artes Visuales in Paraná and at the Escuela Superior de Bellas Artes ‘Ernesto de la Cárcova’ in Buenos Aires. Taking the cue for her well-crafted works from Surrealism but concentrating her attention on fortuitous encounters in everyday life, she fluctuated between a meticulously detailed photographic realism and an artificial imagery of old porcelain dolls and turn-of-the-century postcards, posters and advertising handbills. Generally working in series, she combined the sinister and the humorous, sometimes in a single work, as in Sublime Portrait of my Mother (1978; see Glusberg, p. 455), a frontal view of a masked woman with a vacant and enigmatic smile. An early triptych, the Family of the Condemned (1974), is in the national collection in Buenos Aires (Mus. N. B.A.).

J. Glusberg: Del Pop-art a la Nueva Imagen (Buenos Aires, 1985), pp. 455–8...

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1960, in Talladega (Alabama).

Painter (mixed media).

Richmond Burton studied at Rice University, Houston, receiving a BA in 1982 and a Bachelor of Architecture in 1984. He worked as an architect for Mitchell/Giurgola Architects in Philadelphia, and later with I.M. Pei and Partners in New York, where he was part of the design team for the glass pyramids at the Louvre, Paris. He lives in East Hampton, New York. Burton is interested in the modernist painting tradition, and has been influenced by Kasimir Malevich and Frank Stella....

Article

Canadian, 20th century, male.

Born 1935; died 17 September 2012.

Sculptor, draughtsman, painter, installation artist, architect.

In 1976 Charney attracted attention at the Corridart exhibition accompanying the Montreal Olympic Games. He reconstructed on their former site the façades of two architecturally and historically significant buildings that had been pointlessly destroyed by order of the city council. Charney has been described as an architectural sculptor in the same way that other artists are known as architectural painters and in fact his sculptures are, to an extent, architecture. They do not reproduce existing architecture, as is often the case with architectural painting, nor are they genuine, usable architecture - if they were they would be nothing less than architecture itself. Using simple materials, often wood, Charney's meticulously executed pieces establish a dialogue with genuine architecture, they provide a kind of complementary commentary that accentuates the space of the architectural design and often function as a kind of critical commentary based on the same notion of architectural space. His pieces, which include architectural plans, often in axonometric perspective 'bring out' the key concepts with which architecture is or should be concerned and which, according to Charney are monuments, archetypes, collective consciousness and history. Melvin Charney teaches at Montreal University school of architecture....