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Article

Danish, 19th century, male.

Born 2 April 1805, in Odense; died 4 August 1875, in Copenhagen.

Writer, graphic artist, creator of silhouettes and collages.

The author of the Fairytales and the Picture Book Without Pictures proved, on occasion, to be a gifted engraver. He left delicate silhouettes of girls, cupids and swans beneath the trees. He also decorated screens with collages....

Article

(b Geneva, Feb 25, 1872; d Lausanne, Jan 1, 1938).

Swiss painter and multimedia artist . From 1890/91 she studied under Hugues Bovy (1841–1903) and Denise Sarkissof at the Ecole d’Art in Geneva. A travel scholarship enabled her to study in Munich for a year. From 1904 until the outbreak of World War I Bailly lived in Paris, where she associated with Cubist artists, including Albert Gleizes, Jean Metzinger, Fernand Léger, Marie Laurencin and Sonia Lewitska (1882–1914). From 1905 to 1926 she exhibited regularly at the Salon d’Automne. From 1906 to 1910 her work was influenced by Fauvism, and from 1910 she became interested in Cubism and Futurism: Equestrian Fantasy with Pink Lady (1913; Zurich, Gal. Strunskaja) is reminiscent of the work of Gino Severini or Franz Marc in its rhythmic movement and planar fragmentation of horses and riders into coloured patterns. Other paintings of this period that are also indebted to these movements include ...

Article

Bazaar  

Mohammad Gharipour

Bazaar, which is rooted in Middle Persian wāzār and Armenian vačaṟ, has acquired three different meanings: the market as a whole, a market day, and the marketplace. The bazaar as a place is an assemblage of workshops and stores where various goods and services are offered.

Primitive forms of shops and trade centres existed in early civilizations in the Near East, such as Sialk, Tepe in Kashan, Çatal Hüyük, Jerico, and Susa. After the 4th millennium BC, the population grew and villages gradually joined together to shape new cities, resulting in trade even with the remote areas as well as the acceleration of the population in towns. The advancement of trade and accumulation of wealth necessitated the creation of trade centres. Trade, and consequently marketplaces, worked as the main driving force in connecting separate civilizations, while fostering a division of labour, the diffusion of technological innovations, methods of intercultural communication, political and economic management, and techniques of farming and industrial production....

Article

Dutch, 19th century, male.

Born 11 June 1820, in Rotterdam; died 8 October 1860, in New York.

Painter (mixed media), draughtsman. Landscapes, landscapes with figures, seascapes.

For three years Albertus van Beest accompanied Prince Henry of the Netherlands during his travels in the Far East. He was primarily a painter of shore and river scenes, and is particularly known for his drawings in red chalk, Indian ink, sepia and wash. His approach was bold and simplified, giving it a very modern look....

Article

Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 13 October 1840, in Monza (Lombardy); died 15 May 1904, in Milan.

Painter (including mixed media), watercolourist, engraver, draughtsman. History painting, figures, portraits, genre scenes, still-lifes, landscapes, seascapes, church interiors.

Mosè di Giosue Bianchi studied under Giuseppe Bertini at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera in Milan. He travelled in the course of his studies to Rome, Venice and Paris (where he exhibited successfully for the first time in ...

Article

British, 19th – 20th century, female.

Born 11 November 1850; died 1927.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtswoman (mixed media).

Symbolism.

Pre-Raphaelite.

Catherine Madox Brown studied painting with her father, Ford Madox Brown, as did her sister Lucy and her brother Oliver, and she very soon began exhibiting her work at the Royal Academy, the Dudley Gallery and at other venues in London in ...

Article

Robin Adèle Greeley

(b Mexico City, 1968).

Mexican sculptor, installation artist, and multimedia artist. A figure in the generation of Mexican artists that came to prominence in the 1990s, Cruzvillegas studied pedagogy at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (1986–1990). Informally, he also studied caricature with Rafael “El Fisgón” Barajas (1985) and with Gabriel Orozco in the Taller de los viernes (“Friday workshop,” 1987–1991). In 2007 Cruzvillegas began developing the aesthetic platform of autoconstrucción (“self-building”). Rooted in the ad hoc building tactics prevalent in squatter settlements on the outskirts of megacities, his autoconstrucción works inventively repurpose found detritus to produce a materialist critique of object experience in the 21st-century’s global consumer economy.

Cruzvillegas’s early artistic ventures were informed by, among other factors, his participation in the Taller de los Viernes; his engagement with the underground music, political caricature, and comic book scenes; and his encounters with artists and curators committed to opening Mexico’s then relatively insular art world to international ideas. At the informal Taller de los viernes run by Orozco, Cruzvillegas explored artists and ideas not readily available in Mexico at the time, assimilating everything from Robert Filliou’s ...

Article

British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1866, in Dundee, Scotland; died 1945, in Edinburgh.

Painter (including gouache/mixed media), watercolourist, draughtsman, illustrator. History painting, mythological subjects, genre scenes, landscapes, seascapes. Murals, designs for stained glass.

John McKirdy Duncan studied at the Dundee School of Art and then spent three years in London before leaving for Antwerp and Düsseldorf. During his time on the continent he spent a winter in Rome and developed a deep admiration for the work of Michelangelo. When he returned to Dundee he became a member of the Graphic Arts Association. From ...

Article

Austrian, 19th century, male.

Born 19 August 1864, in Vienna; died 19 December 1941.

Painter (including mixed media), watercolourist, sculptor, draughtsman. Portraits, genre scenes, landscapes.

This artist was a pupil at the Munich academy in the studio of Löfftz and subsequently lived in Vienna. He exhibited in Munich and Berlin from ...

Article

British, 19th century, male.

Born 25 November 1832, in London; died after 1906, in London.

Watercolourist, painter (gouache/mixed media), illustrator. Genre scenes, landscapes.

Symbolism.

Almost nothing is known of Fitzgerald's life, and the exact date of his death remains uncertain. He lived on Moore Park Road in Fulham, West London, in ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, female.

Active from 1910 active in the USA.

Born 1874, in Swinemünde (now Swinoujscie, Poland); died 14 December 1927, in Paris.

Sculptor of assemblages, poet.

Dadaism.

Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven returned to Berlin in 1923, having spent the years from 1910...

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 25 April 1944, in Seattle.

Photographer, video artist. Landscapes, cityscapes.

Doug Hall began his education in Archaeology, completing a BA at Harvard University in 1966. One year later he had completed a course at the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture. He gained an MFA in sculpture at the Rinehart School of Sculpture of the Maryland Institute of Art, Baltimore in ...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 25 September 1865, in Champigné (Maine-et-Loire); died August 1937, in Cannet.

Painter (including mixed media), watercolourist, draughtsman, designer. Scenes with figures, figures, nudes, portraits, landscapes, urban landscapes.

Henri Lebasque studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Angers, then, after moving to Paris in 1886, studied briefly under Bonnat, then under Humbert, whom he assisted in the decoration of the Panthéon. More importantly, he met and learned from Pissarro....

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1886, in Nancy; died 1962.

Painter (including gouache/mixed media). Scenes with figures.

Orientalism.

A relation of the cabinet maker Louis Majorelle, Jacques Majorelle was a designer who used an openly decorative style with gold highlights. In 1999, the Musée des Beaux-Arts in Nancy paid homage to him with ...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1871, in Louveciennes; died 1961, in Menton.

Painter (including gouache/mixed media), watercolourist, draughtsman, designer. Scenes with figures, figures, portraits, landscapes, harbour scenes, urban landscapes, waterscapes, still-lifes, animals.

Normandy School.

Georges Manzana-Pissarro was the second son of Camille Pissarro and was also taught by him. He also studied under the architect Ashble. He painted widely diverse subjects, ranging from figures to landscapes, and was particularly noted for his watercolours heightened with gold or silver, in which fish and birds evolved, in the decorative style that was developing from the Style Nouveau of 1900 to the Art Deco of 1925 and then 1930. Unlike his paintings, he did not date them, which would suggest that he drew a distinction between painting, in the strictest sense, and materialistic decoration. He drew particular inspiration from Orientalism. In that same decorative vein, he was active in the creation of objects. Since then, public interest has shifted in favour of his landscapes, which echo the work of his father....

Article

Austrian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 16 September 1861, in Vienna; died 1942, in Vienna.

Painter (mixed media). Allegorical subjects, still-lifes, flowers, landscapes. Murals.

Franz von Matsch studied from 1876 to 1883 under Julius Viktor Berger at the arts and crafts college of the Austrian Museum in Vienna. Ernst and Gustav Klimt were among his fellow students. He went on to teach at that college ...

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1868, in New York; died 1932, in New York, committed suicide.

Painter (including gouache), collage artist, watercolourist. Figures, portraits, landscapes, still-lifes, flowers.

Alfred Henry Maurer was the son of the lithographer Louis Maurer, one of the most skilled of those responsible for executing Currier & Ives Incorporated's popular chromolithographs, and like his father he too began in lithography. Maurer studied under Edgar Ward at the National Academy of Design in New York, then went to Paris in ...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 17 September 1871, in Nantes; died 1954, in La Bernerie-en-Retz.

Painter (including gouache/mixed media), watercolourist, pastellist. Allegorical subjects, mythological subjects, portraits, still-lifes, flowers, landscapes.

Symbolism.

Edgar Maxence was a pupil of Gustave Moreau and Élie Delaunay. He painted portraits, landscapes and still-lifes and is mainly admired for his Symbolist compositions, principally of women, evolving in a legendary, atemporal and dream-like universe. He exhibited his work regularly in Paris at the Salon des Artistes Français, of which he became a member in 1898, gaining a distinction in 1894, a third-class medal in 1895, and a second-class medal in 1897. He won a gold medal in 1900 at the Exposition Universelle and became a Chevalier de la Légion d'Honneur. In 1924, he was elected to the Institut des Beaux-Arts and then promoted to Officier de la Légion d'Honneur. From 1895 to 1897, he also exhibited his work at the Salon de la Rose-Croix....

Article

19th – 20th century, female.

Painter (mixed media). Flowers, animals.

Verena Merz was a pupil at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. She exhibited at the Basel fair in 1886.

Article

Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 4 October 1851, in Tocco da Casauria near Pescara; died 1929, in Francavilla al Mare near Pescara.

Painter (including mixed media), pastellist, engraver, draughtsman. History painting, figures, nudes, portraits, landscapes with figures.

Francesco Paolo Michetti studied under Morelli and Dalbuono and at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Naples, the city where he first showed work in 1877. Michetti exhibited in Turin, Milan and elsewhere in Italy, and also on several occasions at the Paris Salon. He was awarded two gold medals in Berlin, in 1886 and 1889, and a gold medal at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1900....