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Gordon Campbell

(b Viipuri (now Vyborg, Russia) 1911; d Santorini, Greece, 1989).

Finnish ceramic and glass designer. In 1945 he joined Arabia porcelain factory, where he dispensed with the notion of the china set in favour of mix and match tableware. His best known series was ‘Kilta’ (designed in 1948, sold from 1953 and relaunched in 1981 as ‘Teema’), which was available in several colours and was enormously practical: he dispensed with decorative rims and shaped the surfaces so that they could be easily stacked. He also worked for the Nuutajärvi glassworks, for whom he produced both functional glass and decorative pieces. In both ceramics and glass, Kaj was probably the most influential designer of the 20th century....


Toshiaki Nagaya

[Hiroshi; Kan]

(b Kyoto, Aug 29, 1931).

Japanese architect. He graduated from the Civil Engineering Department of Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto, in 1957 and worked for two years at the Engineering Bureau of Kyoto University. From 1959 to 1976 he was a designer for Takenaka Komuten Co. Ltd, one of the largest construction companies in Japan, where he became vice-president. During this period he received training and learnt the essence of traditional Japanese aesthetics from Hiroyuki Iwamoto, Director of the design department and winner of the competition for the National Theatre in Tokyo.

In 1976 Izue established his own office in Osaka and started his career designing houses such as the Benigara Colour House (1977), Marugame, a traditional-style house in a rural setting, with red ochre-coloured walls. In the 1980s he became interested in sukiya zukuri (‘tea house construction’; see Japan, §XV, 2), an eclectic style of traditional Japanese residential architecture in which different materials and styles are combined according to the architect’s personal idea of spiritual beauty. The freedom and individuality of modern ...


Hiroshi Kashiwagi

(b Niigata, April 6, 1915; d 1997).

Japanese graphic designer. He studied principles of Constructivism at the Institute of New Architecture and Industrial Arts, Tokyo, a private institute established and run by Renshichiro Kawakita with the aim of introducing Bauhaus design theories in Japan; he graduated in 1935 and in 1938 joined the Nippon Kōbō design studio (now Publishing on Design Inc.). For over a decade from 1937 he worked as art director on a number of Japanese magazines, including Nippon and Commerce Japan. In 1951 he participated in the establishment of the Japan Advertising Arts Club, which secured social recognition for the profession of graphic designer. In 1955 he took part in the ‘Graphic ’55’ exhibition, together with Hiromu Hara, Paul Rand and others. Kamekura received an award from the Japan Advertising Arts Club in 1956 for a poster calling for peaceful use of atomic power. He co-founded the Nippon Design Centre (Tokyo) in 1960 with ...


Monique D. J. M. Teunissen

(b Magelang, Aug 5, 1927; d Amsterdam, Jan 1, 1975).

Dutch interior designer and industrial designer of Indonesian birth. After training at the Instituut voor Kunstnijverheidsonderwijs (now the Gerrit Rietveld Academie), Amsterdam (1950–54), he rapidly established himself as a designer. His first industrial contacts were made as a consultant/adviser to the Good Living foundation (1954–6). In the post-war years Kho played an important role in stimulating the cooperation between designers and industry and influenced the design policies of various Dutch furniture producers, including Wagemans/Artifort, Maastricht, and CAR, Katwijk. He was also an active organizer and initiator of various exhibitions and congresses. Through his versatility, original ideas and remarkable creativity he was considered as one of the most eminent Dutch designers. His work is distinguished both by its playfulness and originality and by a desire to achieve something more than a rational organization of interior space. Nevertheless, his work was clearly based on rational, analytical elements; he was familiar with the principles of the Bauhaus through his teacher ...


Chinese, 20th century, male.

Active in Malaysia.

Painter, draughtsman.

Baoci Liang is a painter and industrial designer who studied in the USA. In 1939 he founded an industrial art centre in Shanghai.


Indian, 20th century, female.

Born 1940, in India, to American and Bengali parents.

Painter. Figures. Murals, furniture.

After training in India, in Bombay (now Mumbai) and New Delhi, Anjolie Ela Menon studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris from 1961 to 1962. She lives and works in New Dehli...


Gordon Campbell

(b Spokane, WA, 1905; d 1990).

American furniture designer and manufacturer. The son of Japanese parents, after an early career as an architect he turned in 1940 to furniture-making, initially in Seattle and then, after a period of internment, in New Hope, Pennsylvania, where in 1946 he estabished an independent workshop. The workshop produces both series and individual designs, always in solid hardwood with no veneers; designs reflect both American and Japanese traditions, but are contemporary rather than revivalist. Although Nakashima is sometimes described as one of the founding figures of the American craft movement, his workshop used machine tools and, in the case of his series designs, production methods to create furniture that looks hand-crafted. The workshop is still a family business, and is now run by his daughter Mira (b 1942).

The Soul of a Tree: A Woodworker’s Reflections (Tokyo and New York, 1981) D. Ostergard: George Nakashima: Full Circle (New York, 1989)...


Susan T. Goodman

[Moscovitz, Shalom; Shalom of Safed]

(b Safed, Palestine [now Israel], 1887; d Safed, Jan 1980).

Israeli painter. For over 70 years he worked as a watchmaker as well as a scribe, silversmith and stonemason in Safed, an important centre of Jewish mysticism. After his watch-repair shop was destroyed in the War of Independence (1948), he earned a living by selling plywood toys coloured with crayon. In the mid-1950s Yosl Bergner, who recognized in these charming works the essential qualities of folk art, encouraged Shalom to paint. Shalom’s artistic vocabulary grew out of the rich traditions of his Hasidic heritage. The mystical literature of Safed and the deep impression made by the landscape of Israel contributed to his spiritual and visual development, while his work also reveals a deep affinity and commitment to the Scriptures, although he did much more than merely illustrate the scriptural narrative, as in Scenes from the Book of Ruth (1960; New York, Jew. Mus.). He created a pictorial unity from various recognized conventions, including discrepancies in scale between figures and settings in the depiction of groups in complex compositions, which heighten the expressive effect. Figures are depicted in profile or silhouetted in flat, unmodelled form (e.g. ...


Israeli, 20th century, male.

Born 1895; died 1980, in Safed.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist. Scenes with figures, religious subjects.

Shalom-of-Safed was a watchmaker of Polish-Russian exraction who began painting at the age of 60 in order to illustrate the Bible to his grandchildren. His naive creations included graphic elements inspired by tribal art....


Gordon Campbell

(b 1915).

Japanese industrial designer , active in the USA. He worked in Charlotte Perriand ’s Japanese office, and in the 1950s emigated to the USA, where he designed two stools that have since become famous: the fibreglass ‘Elephant’ stool (1954), which was the first all-plastic stool, and the ‘Butterfly’ stool (...