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Article

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 17 April 1767, in Avignon; died 27 March 1838, in Orange.

Archaeologist, painter.

A student of Gonichon at the École de Dessin de Lyon, Artaud worked as a fabric designer before becoming an archaeologist. He is best-known for his work on the antiques and mosaics discovered in Lyons, and for organising the town's museum, becoming its first curator ...

Article

Simonetta Prosperi Valenti Rodinò

(b Florence, Jan 15, 1689; d Rome, June 4, 1775).

Italian historian, collector and writer. His special interests were the literature of Tuscany during the 14th and 15th centuries, medieval and contemporary art, sacred archaeology and ecclesiastical history. As a scholar of art he brought out (in 1730) a new edition of Raffaele Borghini Il riposo … and wrote the Dialoghi sopra le tre arti del disegno, which was published some years later (Lucca, 1754). The artistic theories he expressed in these works owed something to L. A. Muratori and were influenced by a view of works of art as documents of their time. He exalted the classical traditions of Tuscan art in the early and high Renaissance, praised the classicism of the Carracci and bluntly opposed Mannerist and Baroque art. In the Dialoghi he demonstrated a practical interest, unusual for the period, in methods of restoring and conserving artefacts.

Bottari served the Corsini family from 1718, in Florence at first and then in Rome, where he was summoned in ...

Article

Joshua Drapkin

(b Azay-le-Ferron, Indre, June 3, 1756; d Versailles, Nov 1, 1827).

French draughtsman, engraver, sculptor and archaeologist. He received instruction in drawing from Joseph-Marie Vien, Jean-Jacques Lagrenée and Jean-Baptiste Le Prince. In 1778 he departed for Italy, where he developed his landscape draughtsmanship and his passion for antiquity. He travelled incessantly, recording everything he saw and venturing out from Rome to Venice, Naples and Sicily. An example of the numerous drawings he produced is the Ruins of the Baths of Titus Seen from the Colosseum (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.). In 1782 a group of amateurs, under the patronage of Emperor Joseph II, commissioned from him a series of views of the Istrian and Dalmatian coast; these were eventually published in J. Lavallée’s Voyage pittoresque et historique de l’Istrie et de la Dalmatie. After a brief spell in France, Cassas followed Marie-Gabriel, Comte de Choiseul-Gouffier, to his new ambassadorial post in Constantinople in 1784. He subsequently visited Syria, Egypt, Palestine, Cyprus and Asia Minor, recording his impressions of Alexandria, Cairo, Smyrna, the Temple of Diana (Artemis) at Ephesos and the Palmyra and Baalbek ruins. Many of the 250 drawings dating from this trip were of hitherto unrecorded sights. With Choiseul’s assistance Cassas published these works in the ...

Article

Thomas J. McCormick

(b Paris, baptAug 28, 1721; d Auteuil, Jan 19, 1820).

French architect, archaeologist and painter. He was an important if controversial figure associated with the development of the Neo-classical style of architecture and interior design and its dissemination throughout Europe and the USA. He studied at the Académie Royale d’Architecture, Paris, under Germain Boffrand and won the Grand Prix in 1746. He spent the years 1749 to 1754 at the Académie Française in Rome but left after an argument with the director Charles-Joseph Natoire over his refusal to make his Easter Communion; this may have been due to his Jansenist sympathies. He nevertheless remained in Italy until 1767. During these years he became a close friend of Piranesi, Winckelmann, Cardinal Alessandro Albani and other members of the international circle interested in the Antique.

In his early student days in Rome, Clérisseau became acquainted in particular with English travellers and began to sell them his attractive topographical drawings of Roman architecture. Initially these were influenced by his studies with ...

Article

(b Givry, nr Chalon-sur-Saône, Jan 4, 1747; d Paris, April 28, 1825).

French museum director, writer, graphic artist, collector, archaeologist and diplomat. He was the son of a provincial aristocrat. He went to Paris to further his law studies c. 1765 but entered the studio of Noël Hallé. He became Gentleman-in-Ordinary to Louis XV and was appointed keeper of the collection of engraved gems and medals that Mme de Pompadour had left to the King. In 1772 he entered the diplomatic service as attaché to the French embassy at St Petersburg, he was subsequently posted to Stockholm, Geneva (where his disrespectful engraving Repast at Ferney, of 4 July 1775, angered Voltaire) and, from spring 1776, Naples. There he became acquainted with Sir William Hamilton, the British ambassador, and made many drawings of his future wife Emma. Denon began to acquire a diverse collection of paintings and engravings as well as antiquities from excavations at Nola, Catania, Agrigento, Pompeii and Herculaneum. He purchased the painting of the ...

Article

British, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1752; died 21 March 1822, in London.

Painter, archaeologist.

Sir Henry Charles Englefield exhibited landscapes at the Royal Academy in 1787, 1788 and 1789.

Article

Irish, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born c. 1745, in Cork, 5 March 1761 according to some sources; died 26 August 1816, in Rome.

Painter, archaeologist. Portraits.

Robert Fagan entered the Royal Academy Schools in 1781. He left for Rome via Paris in 1783. Of his work, little other than portraits is known, for example ...

Article

John Turpin

(b London, March 5, 1761; d Rome, Aug 26, 1816).

English painter, archaeologist and dealer, of Irish origin. A Roman Catholic, he was the son of a prosperous London baker, originally from Cork. He entered the Royal Academy Schools in 1781; two years later he travelled to Italy via Flanders and Paris, reaching Rome in January 1784. There, under the influence of Andrea Appiani and François-Xavier Fabre, he evolved an individual and original Neo-classical style of portrait painting, with an emphasis on contour, clear colour and psychological penetration. By the early 1790s he had become a fashionable painter of English visitors and a prominent member of Roman artistic society. His portraits often include evocative Italian landscape settings, as in Elizabeth, Lady Webster (1793; priv. col.), which shows Mt Vesuvius in the background, and the double portrait of his friend Sir Corbet Corbet with his Wife and Dogs in the Roman Campagna (c. 1797; priv. col., see Crookshank and Glin, ...

Article

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 14 September 1753, in Clermont-en-Beauvaisis; died 12 March 1838, in Smyrna.

Draughtsman, painter, engraver, archaeologist.

Fauvel is known to have produced an engraving in colour, as well as The Philosopher after Janinet and a Portrait of the Poet Delille...

Article

Luca Leoncini

(b Pigna, Liguria, June 4, 1753; d Rome, March 17, 1836).

Italian archaeologist and churchman. He went when young to Rome, where he studied philosophy and civil and canon law at the Sapienza. He took priestly orders, but after working briefly as a lawyer devoted himself entirely to archaeology. His first written work was Sulle rovine di Roma, a dissertation appended to the third volume of his translation (Rome, 1783–4) of Johann Joachim Winckelmann’s Geschichte der Kunst des Altertums. He became librarian of the Biblioteca Chigiana and was appointed by Pope Pius VII (reg 1800–23) commissioner for Roman antiquities. Numerous excavations were carried out under his direction: he took a particular interest in those on the Roman Forum. Apart from his many writings about Roman antiquities, Fea published editions of Horace, G. L. Bianconi’s Descrizione dei circhi particolarmente di quello di Caracalla and the works of Anton Raphael Mengs. He was one of the founders of the modern law for the protection of artistic ...

Article

Luca Leoncini

(b Lugnano nel Lazio, 1664; d Rome, Feb 1, 1747).

. Italian scholar, archaeologist and antique collector. His studies and his major writings were devoted to ancient art, and were closely linked with the objects he collected throughout his life. These formed an important collection which earned him great fame, but which was dispersed after his death. It contained small objects and rarities including mirrors, graffiti, lead seals, coins, cameos, lockets and tesserae. The most important piece was undoubtedly the famous Ficoroni Cist from Praeneste (c. 325–c. 300 bc; Rome, Villa Giulia; see Etruscan §VI). One of Ficoroni’s most important studies, published in Rome in 1745, was devoted to his native village, identified with the ancient Labicum. Another of his principal works, Le vestigia e rarità di Roma (1744), was also concerned with topographical matters. Ficoroni was elected correspondent of the Academy of Inscriptions and member of the Royal Academies of Paris and London and the Accademia Peloritana of Messina. He founded the Colonia Esquilina degli Inculti....

Article

David Leatherbarrow

(b London, 1771; d London, Dec 1843).

English architect, writer and illustrator. A brilliant draughtsman, speculative archaeologist and an avid reader of ancient myth, he was one of England’s most remarkable visionary architects. His career began in 1787, when he was apprenticed to James Wyatt. Two years later he entered the Royal Academy Schools, London, and won the Silver Medal in his first year and the Gold in the next. He then left for Italy, where he visited all the important Classical sites as well as less well-known sites in the Roman Campagna. He usually travelled with painters and architects, most often with C. H. Tatham and G. A. Wallis (1770–1847). Gandy won a special medal in an Accademia di S Luca competition in 1795 but was forced to return to London in 1797 because of the advance of Napoleon’s army into Italy and the bankruptcy of his financial supporter John Martindale.

Gandy was unable to set up an architectural practice when he returned to England owing to financial difficulties and worked for ...

Article

British, 18th century, male.

Born 21 October 1735, in London; died 20 February 1809, in London.

Engraver (etching), draughtsman, archaeologist.

Richard Gough drew and engraved etchings during his frequent archaeological journeys.

Oxford (Bodleian Library): sketches, artist's legacy

Article

(b Hilpoltstein, nr Nuremberg, June 10, 1774; d Ampelakia, Greece, Nov 5, 1817).

German archaeologist and architect. He studied architecture at the Karls-Akademie in Karlsruhe and with David Gilly at the Bauakademie in Berlin. In 1808 he visited Italy. For a short while he worked as a building official in Nuremberg, but only a small number of his designs were executed. In 1810 he travelled to Greece, where he spent the rest of his life on archaeological expeditions and excavations. In April 1811 he was one of an English and German group, which included C. R. Cockerell, that discovered and excavated the Temple of Aphaia at Aigina. Haller von Hallerstein was able to persuade Crown Prince Ludwig of Bavaria (later King Ludwig I) to acquire the pediment sculptures for Munich (Munich, Glyp.). In August 1811 the same group excavated at Bassai and unearthed the Temple of Apollo, with its now-famous reliefs (London, BM). During his time in Greece, Haller von Hallerstein collated a collection of sketches and notes of great academic value, now held at the University of Strasbourg. As an architect, he is known mainly for his designs (...

Article

David Rodgers

(b Murdieston, Lothian, 1723; d Rome, Jan 4, 1798).

Scottish painter, archaeologist and dealer, active in Italy. He was educated at Glasgow University and in 1748 arrived in Rome to study portrait painting under Agostino Masucci. He lodged with the architects James Stuart and Nicholas Revett; they probably encouraged him to visit Herculaneum and the recently discovered archaeological site of Pompeii, which had a profound effect on his subsequent career. Convinced that ‘the ancients have surpassed the moderns, both in painting and sculpture’, Hamilton undertook a systematic study of Classical antiquities during the 1750s and 1760s. In 1751 he was briefly in Scotland, where he painted a full-length portrait of Elizabeth Gunning, Duchess of Hamilton (Lennoxlove, Lothian), in a conventional style derived from van Dyck. He returned to Rome in 1752 and remained there, with the exception of short visits to England, for the rest of his life. In 1755 he was introduced by Anton Raphael Mengs to Johann Joachim Winckelmann, who was to become one of the leading theorists of Neo-classicism. In the same year Hamilton entertained Robert Adam (i), who studied in Rome from ...

Article

Ye. V. Zeymal’

Site in Tajikistan, 25 km west of Dushanbe above the confluence of the Khanaka River and the Kafirnigan River. The pisé walls of the fortress, arched gateways and flanking towers of fired brick, two madrasas and the nearby mosque date from the 16th–19th century, when the fortress was the residence of the Hissar bek. Excavations (1980–82) by Ye. V. Zeymal’ revealed that the fortress was erected on an artificial hill comprising occupation layers dating at least from the 3rd–2nd century bc onwards. The large Tup-khona burial ground containing Yueh-chih and Kushana burials (1st century bc–3rd century ad) was clearly associated with the inhabitants of the Hissar site. Another burial ground near Hissar appears to be earlier than the 7th century ad in date. The tentative identification of the Hissar Fortress with the town of Shuman, mentioned in written sources of the 10th–12th century, has not yet been substantiated by reliable evidence. The site is now a historical and archaeological museum reserve, and the finds are housed in the Tajikistan Academy of Sciences, Donish Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography in Dushanbe....

Article

Italian, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1772, in Volterra; died 17 May 1846, in La Badia di Fiesole.

Draughtsman, engraver, archaeologist. Architectural views.

Florence (Uffizi): View of the Royal Villa in Careggi (drawing)

Article

Kalna  

Walter Smith

Town and temple site in West Bengal, India, about 80 km north of Calcutta. Located on the banks of the Bhagirathi River, it was once an important port and commercial centre, but by the late 19th century its importance had declined owing to the silting up of the river and the opening of the East Indian Railway. It is now best known for several temples built during the 18th and 19th centuries by wealthy landowners, merchants and officers of local governors. Many are dated by inscription. Built of brick, they are decorated with dense arrangements of terracotta reliefs depicting scenes from the Rāmāya ṇa, the Krishna legend and scenes of everyday life, including figures in European dress. A variety of temple types are seen; the most common have squat, curvilinear superstructures, sometimes double-storey, or upper levels consisting of several towers (see Indian subcontinent §III 7., (ii), (d)). The Lalji Temple (...

Article

Paul-André Jaccard

(b Zurich, Feb 17, 1771; d Naples, Dec 21, 1832).

Swiss sculptor, historian, archaeologist and poet. A meeting with the sculptor Joseph Anton Maria Christen convinced Keller that he too must become a sculptor. Having sided with Switzerland’s revolutionaries, in 1794 he went into voluntary exile in Florence and later in Rome, where he gravitated towards the German–Danish circle of Asmus Jakob Castens and Bertel Thorvaldsen, completed his artistic training and received his first modest commissions. The marble monolith Diomedes at the Palladium (1796; Zurich, Ksthaus) was evidence of his immense talent and bridged the gap between Alexander Trippel and Thorvaldsen, whose Jason with the Golden Fleece (1801–4; Copenhagen, Thorvaldsens Mus.) bears some slight resemblance to Keller’s work. When commissions grew scarce in Rome after the arrival of the French army, Keller decided to try his luck under the new government of the Swiss Republic but the group he sent them, Liberty Flanked by Pallas Athena and by Hercules...

Article

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 26 December 1761, in Paris; died 11 June 1839, in Paris.

Painter, archaeologist.

Trained by the painter Gabriel-François Doyen, Alexander Lenoir is remembered primarily as an art lover who was a driving force in saving France's works of art and monuments from wholesale destruction at the time of the Revolution. He persuaded the Assemblée Nationale to form a collection of all the paintings, statues and artefacts removed from churches and noble houses, housed in the Convent of the Petits-Augustins. Under the title of ...