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Article

American, 19th century, male.

Activec.1880.

Engraver, illustrator.

A wood engraver, Anderson worked as an illustrator for several American newspapers.

Article

Born 27 March 1813 in Roxbury, Massachusetts; died 1888 in New York City.

Lithographer, printer, publisher.

Currier & Ives (firm).

At the age of 15 Currier was apprenticed to the Boston lithographic firm of William S. & John Pendleton. In 1833 he worked for the engraver and printer M.E.D. Brown in Philadelphia before going to New York and publishing his own lithographs in ...

Article

David M. Sokol

(b Philadelphia, PA, June 23, 1822; d Claymont, DE, March 27, 1888).

American illustrator and printmaker. After being exposed early to the Neo-classical style of John Flaxman, Darley began his career as an illustrator in Philadelphia in 1842. Following a sketching trip west of the Mississippi during the summer of that year, he produced outline drawings that were adapted into lithographs appearing in Scenes in Indian Life (1843). His early book illustrations were published in periodicals such as Democratic Review and Godey’s Magazine. Working in line drawing, lithography and wood- and steel-engraving, his first major success was his series of illustrations for John Frost’s Pictorial History of the United States (1844).

After moving to New York in 1848, Darley dominated the field of American illustration with his illustrations of Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper’s tales and novels. He produced about 500 illustrations for Cooper’s novels and a similar number for Benson J. Lossing’s Our Country (1875–7...

Article

Margaret Moore Booker

(b Cincinnati, OH, Jan 31, 1875; d Sellersville, PA, Sept 4, 1955).

American printmaker and illustrator. Among the pioneer generation of women printmakers in America, she was known for her humorous satires of the American scene. Raised in New Orleans, she moved to San Francisco where she studied art at the Hopkins Institute (c. 1896–7) and joined the Sketch Club (a professional organization that offered exhibition and collaboration opportunities for women).

By 1903 she had settled in Greenwich Village. Three years later she married the painter and etcher Eugene Higgins (1874–1958), and set aside her career. When the marriage ended 11 years later, she became a secretary of the Whitney Studio Club (where she attended evening sketch sessions), shed her married name and traveled abroad. During a trip to Paris in 1926–7, she discovered the medium that suited her artistic temperament: lithography, and studied the technique with Edouard Dûchatel (fl 1880s–1930s) in Paris.

After returning to New York, in ...

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born 18 May 1938, in Boston.

Painter, watercolourist, graphic artist, printmaker. Still-lifes, figures, landscapes.

Janet Fish's grandfather, Clark Voorhees, was an American Impressionist painter, her father was an art history teacher, and her mother, Florence Whistler Fish, was a sculptor and ceramicist. Fish studied sculpture and printmaking at Smith College, Northampton, MA, obtaining a BA in 1960; at Yale University School of Art and Architecture, New Haven (1961-1963), receiving a BFA and an MFA; and at Skowhegan School of Art, Maine (summer 1962). She has taught at the School of Visual Arts, New York; Skowhegan School of Art; Institute of Fine Arts, Santa Fe; Vermont Studio Center, Johnston; and has held the Albert Dorne visiting professorship at the University of Bridgeport, CT. Fish lives in New York City and near Rutland, Vermont....

Article

Helen A. Cooper

(b Boston, MA, Feb 24, 1836; d Prout’s Neck, ME, Sept 29, 1910).

American painter, illustrator and etcher. He was one of the two most admired American late 19th-century artists (the other being Thomas Eakins) and is considered to be the greatest pictorial poet of outdoor life in the USA and its greatest watercolourist (see fig.). Nominally a landscape painter, in a sense carrying on Hudson River school attitudes, Homer was an artist of power and individuality whose images are metaphors for the relationship of Man and Nature. A careful observer of visual reality, he was at the same time alive to the purely physical properties of pigment and colour, of line and form, and of the patterns they create. His work is characterized by bold, fluid brushwork, strong draughtsmanship and composition, and particularly by a lack of sentimentality.

Homer was the second of three sons of Charles Savage Homer, a hardware importer, and Henrietta Benson Homer, a gifted amateur watercolourist. Brought up in Cambridge, MA, where he attended school, he had an active outdoor boyhood that left a lifelong liking for the country. An independent, strong-willed young man, he showed an early preference for art and was encouraged in his interest by both parents. Like a number of self-educated American artists, Homer was first known as an illustrator. At 19 he became an apprentice at the lithographic firm of ...

Article

Danielle Peltakian

(b Brooklyn, NY, Oct 27, 1877; d White Plains, NY, July 13, 1949).

American painter, illustrator and lithographer. As an organizer of the Armory Show (1913) alongside Arthur B. Davies, he played an integral role in unveiling European modernism to the USA. While he painted landscapes of Maine, Cézanne-inspired still lifes and a series based on the American West, his expressive portraits of circus and vaudeville performers remain his best-known works.

In 1901, he trained at the Académie Colarossi in Paris, but soon transferred to the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich where he studied under Barbizon painter Heinrich von Zügel (1850–1941) until 1903. Upon returning to New York in 1903, he worked as an illustrator for publications such as Life and Puck, exhibited at the Salmagundi Club (1905) and organized artists’ balls for the Kit Kat Club. Working in an Impressionist style, he participated with Robert Henri in the Exhibition of Independent Artists (1910)....

Article

David M. Sokol

(b Cheshire, CT, April 1, 1755; d Newark, NJ, Dec 12, 1811).

American silversmith and engraver. After training as a silversmith, he responded to the growing demand for copperplate-engraving by launching his own business in Newark in the 1770s, advertising in the New York and New Jersey newspapers as an engraver of tea sets and as a copperplate printer. Engraving bookplates, broadsides and occasional portraits provided his staple income; in later years, after American Independence, he was also able to meet the demand of nascent banks for individualized, intricately designed banknotes to counter forgery. Although the ephemeral nature of his work makes it difficult to evaluate his talent within the broader context of contemporary engraving, he achieved sufficient status to be elected as the representative of the Engravers’ Association to the Federal Procession of 1788. Three of his sons, Samuel Maverick, Andrew Maverick and the best-known, Peter Maverick (1780–1871), also became printmakers. The last established a partnership with Asher B. Durand between ...

Article

Phyllis Braff

(b Bolton, Lancs, Feb 12, 1837; d Santa Barbara, CA, Aug 26, 1926).

American painter, printmaker, and illustrator, of English birth. His brothers Edward (1829–1901), John (1831–1902), and Peter (1841–1914) were also artists. The family emigrated from England and settled in Philadelphia in 1844. At age 16 Moran was apprenticed to the wood-engraving firm Scattergood and Telfer, but he also began to produce watercolours that sold well. In an exchange arrangement with a book dealer, Moran acquired editions of important engravings, including Claude Lorrain’s Liber Veritatis and J. M. W. Turner’s Liber Studiorum. These served as formative influences for his career as a landscape painter, and contributed to his lifelong concern with pictorial structure and compositional devices. His study of oil painting was guided by his brother Edward, and by Edward’s acquaintance, the marine painter James Hamilton.

Moran’s interest in evocative natural settings led to a trip to Lake Superior in 1860 and to a series of paintings and prints featuring that region’s dramatic configurations of rocks and shoreline. In ...

Article

Alan M. Fern

(b Philadelphia, PA, July 4, 1857; d Brooklyn, NY, April 23, 1926).

American illustrator, printmaker, and writer. Born into a Quaker family, he showed an early aptitude for drawing. Against his father’s wishes he attended evening classes at the Pennsylvania School of Industrial Art and later entered the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia. Always outspoken and independent, he clashed with teachers in both places and never graduated. In 1880 he opened his own studio and undertook commissions for commercial illustration.

Pennell’s first published work appeared in Scribner’s Monthly in July 1881, and his drawings of American cities were soon to be found in many illustrated journals and books. In 1883 he was commissioned by the Century magazine to illustrate articles by William Dean Howells on Tuscan cities, and a year later, having married the writer Elizabeth Robins, he took up residence in London. In England he became part of a circle that included many of the best-known literary and artistic figures of the day, among them Robert Louis Stevenson, George Bernard Shaw, and James McNeill Whistler....

Article

Canadian First Nations (Inuit), 20th–21st century, female.

Born 1969, in Cape Dorset (Nunavut).

Graphic artist (felt pen, crayon, pencil), printmaker (lithography, stone cut). Contemporary Inuit domestic scenes, social realism.

Active in Cape Dorset from the 1990s, Pootoogook moved to Ottawa after becoming the first indigenous artist to win the prestigious Sobey Art Award in ...

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 10 June 1857, in Cincinnati (Ohio); died 10 March 1927, in New York.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, lithographer, illustrator, poster artist. Scenes with figures, figures, interiors with figures, landscapes, seascapes.

Edward Potthast worked as an apprentice to a lithographer from the age of 16, and, except for a period in Europe, continued to work as a commercial lithographer until the age of 39. He studied at night classes at the McMickin School of Design, Cincinnati, and at academies in Antwerp, Munich and Paris from 1882 to 1887, where he was influenced by the work of Robert Vonnoh and the Irish Impressionist Roderic O'Conor....

Article

Hana Myslivečková

(b Světec u Bíliny, July 31, 1873; d Dachau, June 11, 1944).

Czech printmaker, designer, illustrator, painter, and teacher, active also in the USA. From 1892 he studied at the School of Applied Industrial Art in Prague (in Friedrich Ohmann’s Decorative Architecture workshop). In 1897 he left for Paris, where in 1898 he worked for Alphonse Mucha, familiarized himself with graphic techniques, worked in applied graphics, and experimented with lettering and design, and photography. His early, Secessionist, work was influenced by Japanese art and Symbolism. After his return to Prague in 1903 he devoted himself to illustration, publishing an album, Coloured Etchings in the Graphic Art Atelier at Vinohrady, Prague (New York, 1906), and the book Barevný lept a barevná rytina [Coloured etching and coloured engraving], and founding the periodical Česká grafika. Preissig lived in the USA from 1910, gaining a reputation as an innovator in the field of book and advertising graphic design, typography, and illustration, in which fields he introduced the linocut and other special graphic techniques. He taught at art schools in New York, and from ...

Article

James C. Cooke

(b Paisley, Strathclyde, Aug 6, 1838; d Madrid, Dec 26, 1909).

American painter, illustrator, and teacher of Scottish birth. He moved to America with his parents in 1841. At the age of 14 he was apprenticed to a banknote engraving firm in New York. He exhibited his first painting at the National Academy of Design, New York, in 1861, although at this point he was largely self-taught. In Chicago (1865–70) he again worked as an engraver and was active in founding the Chicago Academy of Design. In 1870 Shirlaw went abroad. Unable to study painting in Paris because of the Franco-Prussian War, he went, instead, to Munich, where in 1871 he enrolled at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste. During the next six years he studied with several important Munich teachers and mastered the dark, painterly realism adopted also by Frank Duveneck and William Merritt Chase, compatriots Shirlaw became associated with as leaders of the Munich school. Toning the Bell...