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Irma B. Jaffe

(b New Brunswick, NJ, Aug 15, 1922; d Northampton, MA, June 3, 2000).

American sculptor, illustrator and printmaker. Baskin studied at the New York University School of Architecture and Allied Arts (1939–41), the School of Fine Art (1941–3) and New School for Social Research (1949). He also studied at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Paris (1950) and the Accademia delle Belle Arti in Florence (1951). Inspired by the iconic, monolithic imagery of Ancient Egyptian and Sumerian art, and the similar stylistic qualities of Romanesque and Italian Gothic, he consistently and inventively made use of the archaic mode in such prints as the powerful woodcut Man of Peace (1952; see Fern and O’Sullivan, p. 61) as well as in his sculpture. A traditionalist, he carved in wood and stone, and modelled in clay, taking the human figure as his subject. He firmly believed that painting and sculpture should mediate between artist and viewer some moral insight about human experience, and he was convinced that abstract art could not do this. Throughout his career he rejected spatial penetration of form, preferring the holistic look of such works as the ...


American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1 February 1960, in New York.

Sculptor, assemblage artist, graphic artist.

Nayland Blake studied at Bard College, Annandale on Hudson, NY, receiving his BFA there. In 1984 he obtained a MFA from the California Institute of Arts in Valencia, CA. Blake is a conceptual artist, concentrating primarily on themes of racial, sexual and personal identities, with emphasis on the threat of AIDS and the gay identity. His early works, such as ...


Jean E. Feinberg

(b Cincinnati, OH, June 6, 1935).

American painter, sculptor, printmaker, illustrator, performance artist, stage designer and poet. He studied art at the Cincinnati Arts Academy (1951–3) and later at the Boston Museum School and Ohio University (1954–7). In 1957 he married Nancy Minto and the following year they moved to New York. Dine’s first involvement with the art world was in his Happenings of 1959–60. These historic theatrical events, for example The Smiling Workman (performed at the Judson Gallery, New York, 1959), took place in chaotic, makeshift environments built by the artist–performer. During the same period he created his first assemblages, which incorporated found materials. Simultaneously he developed the method by which he produced his best known work—paintings, drawings, prints and sculptures that depict and expressively interpret common images and objects.

Clothing and domestic objects featured prominently in Dine’s paintings of the 1960s, with a range of favoured motifs including ties, shoes and bathroom items such as basins, showers and toothbrushes (e.g. ...


American, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 30 May 1931, in New York.

Painter, sculptor, graphic artist, printmaker, lithographer. Still-lifes, figures.

Audrey Flack studied at the Cooper Union, New York (1948-1951); Yale University, New Haven (BFA, 1952) with Jossef Albers; the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University (1953); and the Art Students League, New York, under Robert Beverly Hale. She has taught in New York at the Pratt Institute and New York University (1960-1968); the Riverside Museum Master Institute (1966-1967); the School of Visual Arts (1970-1974); and the National Academy of Design (from 1987). Flack has been Albert Dorne Professor at University of Bridgeport, CT (1975); Mellon Professor at the Cooper Union, New York (1982); C. & R. Smith Distinguished Visiting Professor, George Washington University (1992); and Visiting Professor, University of Pennsylvania Institute of Contemporary Art, Philadelphia (1994). She has served on the boards of directors of the College Art Association of America (1989-1994), the Wonder Woman Foundation, and Interns for Peace....


American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 30 July 1940, in El Paso (Texas); died 13 June 2006, in Hondo, in a studio accident.

Sculptor, printmaker, graphic artist. Figures.

As a child, Luis Jiménez learned welding and spray-painting in his father's sign shop. He studied at the University of Texas in Austin, obtaining a BS in art and architecture in ...


Amy Fox

(b New York, 1955).

American graphic designer, sculptor, and painter. Growing up on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, Morla was introduced to the rich culture of New York City at an early age, seeing the Andy Warhol exhibition at the Guggenheim Museum, visiting many museums, and drawing from her own Spanish heritage, quickly gaining an appreciation for culture and the arts. Morla enjoyed drawing and went on to study art at the University of Hartford, West Hartford, CT, in the early 1970s, at the height of the conceptual art movement. Morla learnt the tenets of conceptual art at Hartford, and while this did not give her the opportunity to improve her drawing skills as she expected, it taught her to illustrate concept without image. Sensing that her skills lay in the field of graphic design, she transferred to Massachusetts College of Art, Boston, where she obtained a BFA in Graphic Design. After graduation she accepted a job in the late 1970s as senior designer for KQED, San Francisco’s Public Broadcasting System (PBS) Station; a job that taught her to work with sound and motion and to stay within a limited budget. She left KQED to work as an art director at Levi-Strauss & Company, where she learnt the art of communicating the design process to co-workers who did not necessarily understand design or the design process. It was a skill Morla found useful when she began working with clients in her own company....


American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in New York City.

Born 18 September 1951, in Santa Monica (California).

Sculptor, installation artist, performance artist, poster artist.

Computer Art (Virtual Art).

Matt Mullican attended the California Institute of the Arts, Valencia, where he studied with the conceptual artist John Baldessari, obtaining a BFA in ...


American, 20th century, male.

Born 1936.

Sculptor, photographer.

Minimal Art.

Richard Nonas studied anthropology, worked as an archaeologist in Georgia, and directed ethnographical studies in Native American villages in Mexico. He lived in Paris for two years and took up sculpture around 1967. He was in residence at the Calder Studio, Saché, in ...


American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 24 September 1960, in Provincetown (Massachusetts).

Painter, sculptor, photographer, graphic artist. Figures, flowers, landscapes.

Jack Pierson studied at the Massachusetts College of Art in Boston, obtaining a BFA in 1984. He lives and works in New York City and in southern California, but travels frequently to Las Vegas and Provincetown. He has worked as a photographer for the magazine ...


W. C. Foxley


(b Canton, NY, Oct 4, 1861; d Ridgefield, CT, Dec 26, 1909).

American painter, sculptor, illustrator, and writer. In 1878 he began his studies at the newly formed School of the Fine Arts at Yale University in New Haven, CT, remaining there until 1880. This, along with a few months at the Art Students League in New York in 1886, was his only period of formal art training. In 1881 he roamed through the Dakotas, Montana, the Arizona Territory, and Texas to document an era that was fast vanishing. He returned east and in 1882 had his first drawing published (25 Feb) in Harper’s Weekly. Further commissions for illustrations followed, including that for Theodore Roosevelt’s Ranch Life and the Hunting Trail (New York, 1888). He became a business partner for a bar in Kansas City, MO, but its failure, coupled with his continued success as an illustrator, convinced him that he would do better to record the West visually rather than help to develop it financially....


American, 20th century, male.

Born 1933, in Grand Forks (North Dakota).

Painter, watercolourist, sculptor, poster artist. Murals.

James Rosenquist studied at the University of Minnesota and in 1955 received a bursary from the Art Students League of New York. With Lichtenstein and Oldenburg, James Rosenquist is one of the masters of American Pop Art, a movement inspired by the consumer society, reacting against the aestheticism of Abstract Expressionism and using techniques taken from the worlds of the press, cinema and advertising. Rosenquist’s work is situated after the movement’s neo-Dada forerunners, Rauschenberg, Jasper Johns, Chamberlain and Stankiewicz, with the first representatives of the second wave of Pop Art, who came together in 1962 and would launch the vogue for this second American post-war style....


American, 20th century, female.

Born 1926, in San Francisco.


Kay Sekimachi studied at the California College of Arts and Crafts in Oakland. She gave up graphic arts to become a weaver in 1954 under the direction of Trude Guermonprez. After 1960 she began weaving with nylon filaments, then created her works with elements obtained from three-dimensional transparent shapes....


American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1964, in New York.

Draughtsman, sculptor. Scenes with figures.

Gary Simmons obtained a bachelor of fine arts in graphic design and illustration from the School for Visual Arts, New York, in 1988, and a master's degree in fine art from the California Institute of Arts in ...


American, 20th–21st century, female.

Born 18 January 1954, in Nuremberg, Germany.

Sculptor (mixed media), graphic artist.

Kiki Smith was born in Germany, but grew up in New Jersey. Her father was the sculptor Tony Smith, and as a child she helped him make cardboard models for his geometric models, thereby learning about Formalism and Minimalism. She studied at Hartford Art School (1974–1976), and has also trained in industrial baking and as an Emergency Medical Technician. She has lived in New York since 1976 and was associated with Collaborative Projects Inc. there through the early 1980s. Influences on her work include Eva Hesse, Louise Bourgeois and Lee Bontecou....


Morgan Falconer

(b Lakewood, Ohio, 1930; d Paris, May 7, 2014).

American painter, sculptor and conceptual artist. Although notoriously reluctant to reveal biographical details including her date or place of birth, she went on record as having studied at a remarkable number of institutions including the Cleveland Museum of Art, the Art Institute of Chicago, the Art Students’ League in New York, the University of Iowa, the University of Zurich and Columbia University in New York. She quickly rose to notoriety in the late 1960s for her appropriation of famous images by contemporary Pop artists. Her choice of artistic models was carefully made, as the Pop artists had themselves mimicked the appearance of found objects and ready-made images from advertising, commercial art and photography. One of her first such works was a copy of Jasper Johns’s Flag exhibited at a group exhibition in 1965; in 1966 she held a solo exhibition consisting entirely of reproductions of screenprinted paintings from Andy Warhol’s ...


(b Arthabaska, Qué., April 5, 1869; d Daytona Beach, FL, Jan 29, 1932).

Canadian painter, sculptor and illustrator. He was educated at Arthabaska College and Nicolet seminary. Brought up in an ecclesiastical environment, in 1889 he helped to decorate the walls of the parish church of Arthabaska and the chapel of the local Collège du Sacré-Coeur. In 1890 he moved to France where he studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Léon Bonnat as well as at the Académie Julian and Académie Colarossi. He remained in France until 1908, returning only briefly to Canada in 1893.

While in France Suzor-Coté painted many rural landscape works in a controlled Impressionist style, as in Return from the Harvest Field (1903; Ottawa, N.G.). He also painted occasional history subjects, such as the Death of Montcalm (1902; Quebec, Mus. Qué.), which depicts the death of the French commander in Canada, Louis-Joseph Montcalm (1712–59), after the defeat by the British. In 1908 he returned to Canada, setting up a studio in Montreal, and he then spent his summers in Arthabaska and the rest of the year in the studio. Many of his works were then Impressionist landscapes, such as ...


Whitney Chadwick

revised by Amy Lyford

(b Galesburg, IL, Aug 25, 1910; d New York, NY, Jan 31, 2012).

American painter, sculptor, illustrator, stage designer, and writer. She studied at the school of the Art Institute of Chicago in 1932 before moving to New York, where she saw the exhibition Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism (1936–7; New York, MOMA) and was inspired to become a painter. After meeting Max Ernst in 1942 she became part of the group of exiled Surrealists living in New York during World War II; see Children’s Games (1942) and Eine Kleine Nachtmusik (1943). Her first one-woman exhibition took place at the Julien Levy Gallery in 1944.

One of Tanning’s first Surrealist paintings was the self-portrait, Birthday (1942; Philadelphia, PA, Mus. A.), influenced by the illusionistic Surrealism of René Magritte and Max Ernst that she had seen at the MOMA exhibition. To support herself in the 1940s, she worked as an advertising illustrator for Macy’s, and some of her paintings express an affinity with the conventions of fashion advertising (see ...


Regina Soria

(b New York, Feb 26, 1836; d Rome, Jan 29, 1923).

American painter, illustrator, sculptor, and writer (see fig.). He studied under Tompkins Harrison Matteson in Shelbourne, NY, and went to Paris in March 1856. After eight months in the studio of François-Edouard Picot, he settled in Florence until the end of 1860. There he learnt drawing from Raffaello Bonaiuti, became interested in the Florentine Renaissance and attended the free Accademia Galli. A more significant artistic inspiration came from the Italian artists at the Caffè Michelangiolo: Telemaco Signorini, Vincenzo Cabianca (1827–1902), and especially Nino Costa (1827–1902). This group sought new and untraditional pictorial solutions for their compositions and plein-air landscapes and were particularly interested in the experiences of Gustave Courbet and the Barbizon painters. They became known as Macchiaioli for their use of splashes (macchia) of light and shadows and for their revolutionary (maquis) attitude to prevailing styles. Among Vedder’s most notable Florentine landscapes are ...


Marco Livingstone

[Warhola, Andrew ]

(b Pittsburgh, PA, Aug 6, 1928; d New York, Feb 22, 1987).

American painter, printmaker, sculptor, draughtsman, illustrator, film maker, writer, and collector. After studying at the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh from 1945 to 1949, he moved to New York and began working as a commercial artist and illustrator for magazines and newspapers. His work of the 1950s, much of it commissioned by fashion houses, was charming and often whimsical in tone, typified by outline drawings using a delicate blotted line that gave even the originals a printed appearance; a campaign of advertisements for the shoe manufacturers I. Miller & Sons in 1955–6 (Kornbluth, pp. 113–21) was particularly admired, helping to earn him major awards from the Art Directors Club.

Warhol continued to support himself through his commercial work until at least 1963, but from 1960 he determined to establish his name as a painter. Motivated by a desire to be taken as seriously as the young artists whose work he had recently come to know and admire, especially Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg, he began by painting a series of pictures based on crude advertisements and on images from comic strips. These are among the earliest examples of ...